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iJS'&c. 




I 



r 



A GUIDE 



TO 



RIPON, FOUNTAINS ABBEY, 

HARROGATE, BOLTON PRIORY, 



AND 



^tbtxd plaas d xxdmnt %n i\im bttmt^a. 



BY 



John Richard Walbran, F.S.A., 

Corresponding Member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ; Honorary Member 

of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyjie ; and Local 

Secretary of the Archaeological Institute of 

Great Britain and Ireland. 



Cto^Iftj^ ^iritbn. 



REVISED BY THE REV. CANON RAINE, M.A., AND 
MR. WILLIAM FOWLER STEPHENSON. 



RIPON : 

PRINTED & PUBLISHED BY A. JOHNSON & CO.. MARKET-PLACE; 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO., STATIONERS* HALL COURT, LONDON. 

1875. 



PUBLISHER'S PREFACE. 



Twenty years have elapsed since the late Mr. John 
Richard Walbran issued the sixth edition of this 
** Guide Book," one of which author and publisher 
were alike proud. It was chiefly owing to the fact 
that Mr. Walbran took such an interest in this work 
that the publisher thought a " Memorial Edition " 
would be a fitting tribute to his memory, and be 
favourably received by his friends and admirers. 

In the revision of this Guide great care has been 
exercised to preserve the original text as far as 
possible ; much interesting matter, culled from the 
earlier editions, has been added ; and a Memoir has 
been contributed by Mr. Edward Peacock, F.S.A., 
of Bottesford Manor, whose personal knowledge and 
appreciation of the late author's talents render him 
well fitted to undertake such a task. 

In carrying out this work the publisher has been 
assisted and encouraged by gentlemen, ably qualified 
to bring the matter tp a successful issue, — to whom 
he now wishes to make his public acknowledgments. 

First, then, to the Rev. Canon RainE; M. A., and 
to the late Mr. W. Fowler Stephenson, whose 
names appear on the title page, his grateful thanks 



IV PREFACE. 

are specially due. The former has revised all 
the sheets relating to Ripon and Fountains Abbey ; 
the latter, whilst affording assistance in correcting 
these sheets, revised that part relating to places in 
the vicinity. Since his death, the Rev Joseph 
Thomas Fowler, F.S.A., has kindly afforded every 
assistance in his power ; and to him the publisher is 
indebted for the interesting account of the Cathedral 
Library, which will be found in the appendix. 

To Mr. F airless Barber, F.S.A., for his article 
on the plan of Fountains Abbey ; to Mr. William 
Grainge, for his revision and correction of the Har- 
rogate sheet ; to the Rev. William Collings Lukis, 
F.S.A., for his contribution on Wath, and his article 
on the Maison de Dieu Chapel at Ripon, as well as 
for other timely assistance ; and last in the compil- 
ation of the work, though not least in importance, 
to Mr. Edward Peacock, F.S. A., for the faithful and 
painstaking Memoir, which accompanies this work, 
the publisher tenders his cordial thanks. 

In illustrating the various objects of interest 
mentioned in the following pages, the publisher has 
been enabled, by the generous assistance of friends, 
to make the work more valuable and attractive by 
the addition of several plans and views. His best 
thanks are therefore due to Mr. John Murray, for 
the West Front and S.E. Views of Ripon Cathe- 
dral ; to Mr. John Parker, for the plans and view 
of Markenfield Hall ; to the Rev. William Collings 



LuKis, F.S.A,, for the plans of Maison de Dieu 
Chapel ; to Mr. Fairless Barber, for the Plan of 
the Old Abbey Site ; and to Rev, Canon Raine for 
the Fountains Seal 

The publisher now takes leave of a work which 
has occupied his leisure time for a few years past, 
in the hope that it will impress the reader with 
a higher appreciation of Mr, Walbran's works, and 
be the humble means of keeping alive the memory 
of one, who, with more encouragement in ^vty life, 
would have made a greater name in the archaeo- 
logical and literary world, and have left deeper 
"footprints on the sands of time." 

W. H. 

XifcH, April, lSj6. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



1 



For some years past, the Publisher of this work has been accustomed to provide for 
the Visitors to Ripon and Harrogate, a Guide to the places of interest in their 
neighbourhood. Though, from the extraordinary literary disadvantages to which 
this portion of the country is doomed, it has hitherto been but a catalogue of bare 
topographical facts, unanimated by reflection, and compiled without reference to 
the state of general literature, it has diffused information not generally known, and 
was kindly received in the spirit in which it was given. 

The period having now arrived when its periodical supply is exhausted, I have 
been tempted by the occasion, though at much personal inconvenience, to offer an 
entirely new and original work, that may the better meet the spirit of enquiry that 
is extending swiftly to all classes of society. And though, as my countryman 
Bishop Earle observed, " I do not love all things, as Dutchmen do cheese, the 
better for being mouldy and worm-eaten ; " yet, being persuaded of the great benefits 
that result friSn an acquaintance with Archaeological literature — the only solid foun- 
dation of our historical and topographical enquiries, as well as the faithful index of 
our valuable institutions — I have endeavoured to combine, with the ordinary routine 
of a guide, such historical memoranda as my scanty limits would allow ; as well as 
to indicate the very important light which many of our local objects throw on dis- 
cussions that are obtaining increasing attention — particularly on the progress of 
architectural design and construction. It is thus that I would explain to the general 
reader, the introduction of those biographical particulars of St. Wilfrid, which 
seem to be of importance in the consideration of Saxon architectiu'e : and the pre- 
liminary observations on the Cathedral of Ripon, the very founder of which has 
been hitherto forgotten, and its history most wretchedly garbled and misunder- 
stood. 

This design has not, however, been accomplished without much difficulty. 
There is no County History on whose fundamental statements I might rely ; no 
tolerable local history which I could resort to and abridge ; nor have I enjoyed a 
digest of those local records, whose examinaticm would occupy the attention of years ; 
nor the collections of those, who, with a fate too conmion, have laboured only that 
other men might enter into their labours. 

Lastly : since these pages have been collected at an outlay of trouble and expense 
much greater than is usually expended on a work of this nature and pretension, 
and abstracted from incipient collections — of which; if God grant me health and 
opportimity, I intend to make more comprehensive use in my projected " History 
of the Wapentake of Claro and Liberty of Ripon," I may not be deemed unreason- 
able, if I desire those, who may have the inclination or necessity to republish such 
original facts as I have recorded, to acknowledge the source from whence they 
are derived ; and — remembering that much information which I have pointed out 
on these subjects, has been seized by ignorant adventurers, in the sordid spirit 
of mercantile gain — to observe that, on a recurrence of their attentions, I shall 
avail myself of the legal remonstrances provided for those "whose organs of 
acquisitiveness" are too largely developed. 

J. R. WALBRAN. 

Fall Croft, Ripon, 

October i^th, 1844. 



GENERAL INDEX. 




Page 


Fountains Abbey— Continued 


. Page 


AiLCv Hill ... 6 


Close and Park . 


100 




Conventual Church 


104 


AldfieldSpa . . 134 


Court House (now Museum) 124 | 




Coins (discovery of) 


124 


Aldborough , . 172-174 


Dissolution of 


98 




Dormitory 


103 


Barden Tower and Chapel 201 


Echo 


134 




Frater House 


123 


Blois Hall, Earthworks at . 3 


Gardrobes 


104 




Gatehouse 


lOI 


Boroughbridge . . 9,169 


Grounds, the . « 


84-89 


1 


Historical Notice of 


90-101 


Brimham Rocks . . 154-161 


Hospitium 


102 




Infirmary 


103 


Bolton Priory . . 188 


Kitchen . 


126 


Bam . . . 203 


Library . 


122 


Bridge and Chapel . 190 


Lady Chapel 


117 


Church Yard . . 199 


Liberty of 


124 


Conventual Church . 191 


Mill 


100 


Holm Terrace . . 203 


Mimiment Room . 


124 


Legend about . . 189, 200 


Nave 


105 


Stnd . . . 200 


Offices 


100 


Siurvey of . . . 192 


Orchards . 


100 


The Woods . . 199 


Owners of 


99 




Pavements 


116-132 


Bolton Hall . . 190 


Plan of . 


114 




Prisons . 


127 


Castle Dykes . . 5, 146 


Ponds 


100 




Relics, List of . 


125 


Embsay Priory . . 189 


Refectory 


126 




Scriptorium 


122 


Fountains Abbey . . 90 


Tower 


113 


List of Abbats . . 93 


Transepts . 


108-113 


Abbat's House . . 128-132 


Yew Trees 


lOI 


Acoustic Pottery . . 107 






Base Coiut . . 127 


Fountains Hall . 


102 


Brewhouse . . 123 






Bridge . . . loi 


Hackfall . 


151-153 


Buttery . . . 126 






Cellar . . . 123 


Halikeld 


4 


Cemetery. . . 133 






Chapter House . . 120-122 


How Hill and Chapel . 


87 


Choir . . . 114 






Cloister . . 103, 208-210 


Hutton, Celtic Temples and 




Cloister Court . . 119 

/ - 


Barrows at 


3 



VIU. 



GENERAL INDEX— Continued. 



Harrogate . 
Baths 

Churches and Chapels 
Harlow Carr and Tower 
Hospital . 
Hotels 
Origin of 

Recreation, Balls, &c. 
Wells, Analyses of 
Cheltenham 



-Crown 

-Montellier 

-Starbeck 

-Sulphur 

-Sweet 

-Tewit 



KiRBY Hill . 

Knaresbrough Forest 

Layer, Riyer 

Lindrick 

Markenfield Hall 
Tombs 
Arms 

Newby Hall 
,, Church 

Publisher's Preface 

Robin Hood, his Well 

Roman Rigg . 

RiPON, Abbey of 
Bishop of . 
Chapels, Dissenting 

Roman Catholic 
College of Vicars 
College, projected 
Common 

Corporation, Municipal 
Commercial Position 
Court House 
Diocese . 
Dispensary n . 
Episcopal Palace 
Fairs and Markets 
Gas Works 
Geology of 
Hospitals 

Historical Introduction 
Liberty of 
Local Government 
Manor 

Manufactures 
Market-place and Cross 
Mechanics' Institution 
Palace and Park of Arch 
bishop of York 



Page 

175 

185 
177, 178 

184 

186 

186 

176 

186 

187 

183 
182 

184 

183 
181 

180 

179 

171 

^75* 190 
20, 82 



137 
61 

139 

162 
164-168 

• • • 

ni-v 
89, 100 



22-31 

49 

79 

79 

75 

44 
2, 19, 76 

II, 14, 17 

z8 

75 

49 
81 

145 

1S-19 
81 

20 

77-78 

1-16 

7,16 

16-18 

8 

9,10,18 

21 

80 



8.75 



RiPON— Continued. 



Page 



Plague at . 


10, 13 


Population 


81 


Public Buildings & Institu- 


tions 


77-81 


Races 


19 


Sanctuary 
School, Grammar 


30 


79 


,, National . 


80 


Scientific Society 


5.6 


See of 


26, 49, 69 


Topographical Survey 


20 


Trinity Church . 


76 


Water Works 


81 


Wakeman 


II, 17 



RiPON Cathedral, Historical 

Notice of . . 35-50 

Survey of . . . 51-75 

Chapel of Our Lady . 32-4 

Chantry Chapels . . 41 

Choir . . . 68-72 

Chapter House and Vestry 72 

Crypt, formerly the Bone 

House . . 74 

Library . . 73, 206-208 

Nave . . 39.54.57-59.205 

Prebends ... 40 



Restorations of . 
St. Wilfrid's Needle 
Transept 
West Front 



45-48 

64-68 

55. 60-63 

52-54 



Rising of the North . 11 

Skell, Riyer . 10, 20, 84, 128 

Studley Royal . . 82 

Studley Church . . 137-144 

Tanfield . . . 147-150 

Church . . . 148 

Marmion Tombs . . 148 

Thornborough . ^ 150 
Earthworks at . '3. 150 

Walbran, J. R., Memoir of xi 

Watling Street . 5 

Wharfe and Wharfedale 200 

White Doe of Rylstone . 199 



Wilfrid, St. 
Shrine of . 
Bumyng Iron 
Pokestone of 

Yore, Riyer 



5, 22, 29, 43 
42 

43 
44 

. 20, 151, 169, 172 



\ 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 






The Initial Letters at pp. jj, 82, go, 14s, 14?^ iS^, iS4> ^S^f HS* 


and 


188, are facsimiles from a Chartiilary of Fountains written about the close of 


the fourteenth century. 


PAGE 


Map of the District 


Ripon Cathedral, from the S.E. .... Frontispiece 


Portrait of the late Mr. J. R. Walbran, F.S.A. . to face 


xi 


Ripon, from the Studley Lime Kilns . 




• • 


I 


Old Abbey Site .... 




to face 


25 


Sanctuary Cross, Sharow 




• 


31 


Ripon Cathedral— West Front 




to face 


35 


Arms of the See of Ripon . 




• • 


50 


Plan of Ripon Cathedral .... 




to face 


5t 


Bas-relief on a Tomb in South Aisle . 




• 


58 


Tomb of Sir Thomas Markenfidd 




• • 


61 


Plan of St. Wilfrid's Crypt 




> • 


67 


Misereries from Choir Stalls 




to face 


70 


Boss from Choir Vaulting (a Bishop seated) 




t * 


71 


The Old Bone House .... 




to f;\ce 


75 


Ground Plan of Maison de Dieu Hospital 




to fiice 


78 


Elevation of Maison de Dieu Hospital 




to face 


79 


Studley Hall . . 






82 


Fountains Abbey from Anne Boleyn's Seat 






88 


Old Studley Hall .... 






89 


Fountains Tower and St. Michael's Mount . ' . 






90 


Seal of Cassandra de Estodley 






97 


Seals from the Fountains Charters . 




to face 


98 


Do ... 




• • 


99 



X illustrations-Continued. 

Bracket, Gate-house 

Ooisters, Fountains Abbey 

Fountains Abbey, Choir and Nave looking West 

Plan of Vases in the Nave, Fountains 

Sculpture— Annunciation of the Virgin 

Tombstone of Abbat Burley 

Do John de Ripon 

Do Abbat Ripon 

Do John de Cancia 

Ground Plan of Fountains Abbey 
Fountains Abbey from the S. W. 
Specimens of pen and ink Sketches by the monks 
Capitals, Brackets, &c., found during the Excavations 
Seal and Counter-Seal of Fountains Abbey, 1410 
Silver Ornament — Lion's head 
Sepulchral Slabs, from the Cemetery, Fountains 
Capital, from the Chapter House 
Initials, &c., of Marmaduke Huby . 
Markenfield Hall 
Markenfield Hall 
Plan of Markenfield Hall . 
Seal of Sir Thomas Markenfield 
The Episcopal Palace 
Brimham Rocks . 
The Refectory, Fountains 
Seal of William de Hebden 
Church of Christ the Consoler, Skelton 
Piunp Room, Sulphur Well, Harrogate 
West Front, Bolton Priory . 
Bolton Priory, from the N.E. 
Seal of Simon de Clutherum 



to face 



Page 

lOI 

103 
107 
107 
no 
III 

112 
116 
121 

to face Z14 
to face 122 



to face 
to face 

• 

to£ice 



to face 



to face 



to face 



to face 



to face 



123 

125 

129 

131 
132 

135 
136 

141 
141 
144 
144 

14s 
156 

158 
i6i 

165 

175 
188 

193 
204 



J^^^2^r/...../^Uf 




xxdaxx. 



John Richard Walbran was born in Allhallowgate, Ripon, 
on Christmas Eve, 1817. He was the eldest son of his father, 
Mr. John Walbran, by his wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of 
Christopher Husband, of Ripon. The family had been settled 
for many generations in the neighbourhood of Bedale. 

From the earliest years of childhood, Mr. Walbran 
shewed a marked taste for historical studies. This was not by 
any means encouraged by his parents, but so strongly was his 
mind bent in that direction, that no amount of opposition had 
any effect upon him. We have seen a tattered copy book, the 
contents of which were written at a time when he could form 
letters but very imperfectly, which shews that when a boy he 
had determined upon writing a history of his native city. 
When quite a lad it was remarked by those who knew him that 
he was far better acquainted with the history of Ripon and the sur- 
rounding towns and villages than any one in the neighbourhood. 

He was educated at Whixley, under the Rev. J. Husband, 
the vicar; when his education there was finished, he was 
anxious to devote himself to the study of the law, not so much, 
we believe, with the idea of profit, as for the purpose of quali- 
fying himself more fully for pursuing those researches on which 
his heart and mind were bent. For family reasons, which 
Walbran never explained, this desire was not- complied with; 
but in after life, he gave so much attention to legal antiquities, 
that there were probably few members of that profession who had 
a deeper or more familiar knowledge of ancient forms of civil and 
ecclesiastical procedure, and the intricacies of feudal tenure. 

In September, 1849, ^^* Walbran married Miss Jane 
Nicholson, daughter of the late Richard Nicholson, Esq., of 
Ripon. He was twice elected mayor of his native city — • 
in 1856 and 1857. On the 12th of January, 1854, he was 




xii. mtxaoit. 



elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. For many of 
the latter years of his life he had suffered much from ill health. 
Early in the year 1868 he was stricken by paralysis, from the 
effects of which he died, on the 7th of April, 1869, and on 
the lOth of the same month was buried in the church yard of 
the Holy Trinity, at Ripon. 

Few persons, in these days, pass a life so uneventful. His 
whole time was taken up with the study of his favourite sub- 
jects J and he seldom left home except to go to London or 
Oxford for the purpose of following up some of the thousand 
lines of investigation which his labours, in his own study, 
opened out to him. When he went out for pleasure, he rarely 
strayed further than to one or other of the great Yorkshire 
abbeys, where, solitary, or with one single companion, he would 
indulge in poetical reverie. A crowd he hated — especially a 
crowd of sight-seers. It was but seldom, even, that he could be 
induced to join in the tours of the various local archaeological 
and architectural societies of which he was a member. 

Mr. Walbran has published so little, that it is difficult 
for those who knew him most intimately, and impossible for all 
others, to measure the extent of his attainments. We our- 
selves believe that no one has ever had a more minute know- 
ledge of the ecclesiastical and feudal history of Yorkshire than 
he ; and that he possessed, in addition to mere fact-lore^ the 
faculty of poetic idealization, in perhaps a higher degree than 
any contemporary writer on local history. In minute accuracy 
as to names and dates, he has had few equals ; we remetn- 
ber no one except Robert Surtees — the historian of the Bishopric 
of Durham — ^who has so thoroughly identified himself with the 
spirit of the past, and who has clothed his thoughts in such 
touching words. Prefaces to antiquarian books, and papers read 
at archaeological meetings, are not the places where one hopes 
to find beauty of expression, or thoughts touching from their 
depth of religious feeling or poetic beauty. Passages might, 
however, be quoted from Walbran's prefaces and papers which 
may well compare, in these respects, with anything in modern 
prose literature. 




tmaxt. 



Xlll. 



Mr. Walbran's first work, printed in 1841, but never 
published, was a Genealogical Account of the Lords of Studley 
Royal. Only a very few copies were struck off, as presents, 
and it is now of extreme rarity. This was followed, in the 
same year, by the first edition of the Guide to Ripon and Har- 
rogate, Mr. Walbran had on previous occasions contribu- 
ted to two editions of a Tourists^ Guide^ published by Linney, in 
1837 and 1838. In the latter will be found the short genealogies 
of the Lords of Studley 5 the Earl de Grey (of Newby) ; and the 
Nortons of Norton. In 1857, Mr. Walbran, assisted 
by his friend and fellow-worker, the late Mr. William 
Harrison, published a large and handsome edition of the 
Guide, embellished with numerous original woodcut illustra- 
tions and plans, for the most part from the author's own 
drawings. This edition may easily be identified by the artistic 
illuminated cover in which the book was bound, appropriately 
copied from the Tudor work of Abbot Huby and the hand- 
some Municipalia of the Ripon Corporation. The first edition 
of the " Shilling Guide" was issued in 1863, and new editions 
have rapidly succeeded one another ever since. 

In early childhood Mr. Walbran had determined upon writ- 
ing a history of his own neighbourhood, but it was about the year 
1844 that he laid down for himself a regular plan for a History 
of the Wapentake of Claro and the Liberty of Ripon. The book 
was to have consisted of two large folio volumes, to range 
with Whitaker's Loidis and Elmete. Unhappily for all who 
take an intelligent interest in the past, it has never seen the 
light. We believe that the manuscript collections for it are in 
good hands, but with Walbran, once to have known a fact, 
was to know it for ever, and he made few notes to refresh his 
memory ; consequently very much of the knowledge which he 
possessed has been lost irretrievably. In 1851 he published, 
in octavo, the first part of a History of Gainford^ in the 
Bishopric of Durham. There seems no very obvious connec- 
tion between the Valley of the Tees and that of the Yore; 
but there were many circumstances connected with feudal 
ownerships and the intertwinings of pedigree, and also some of 



xiv. ^tmm. 

a private nature, which made that part of the Palatinate appeal 
strongly to his imagination. The book was a most valuable 
contribution to local history. The second part, sad to say, 
never appeared. This is the more to be regretted, as it was 
certainly written ; we ourselves turned over the pages of the 
manuscript in the author's study, in the year 1852. At the time 
when the first part was published, an appendix of charters was also 
printed, extending to thirty-two pages ; and also a tabular pedi- 
gree of the Vane family. No copies of these are accessible 
except a few that were given away by the author to personal 
friends. In 1854, he published an essay on the Oiatli taken by 
Members of the Parliaments of Scotland from 10th Augui^^ '641, 
the original manuscript of which he had discovered in the 
charter room of Major Dundas of Blair Castle. The tract is 
accompanied by a fac-simile of the original, executed by the 
editor, and short notes identifying the signers. 

Shortly after this he undertook to edit, for the Surtees Society, 
the Chronicle^ Chartularies^ Surveys^ and Account Rolls of 
Fountains Abbey. It was a work of immense labour. Only 
one volume, however, of the three or four of which it was to 
consist, was completed at the time of his death. The written 
records of Fountains have had a lot more fortunate than that 
of most of its sister houses. Though scattered, the great bulk 
of them are not lost. Mr. Walbran had the unrestricted 
use of the vast mass of important evidences in the Marquess 
of Ripon's muniment room. He also visited every repository in 
England where anything could possibly be found calculated to 
throw light upon his favourite theme. Not only were the 
British Museum, the Bodleian, and the college libraries of 
Oxford and Cambridge, ransacked to supply materials for these 
Memorials^ but the charter chests of the Yorkshire nobility, 
and the treasures of those prrvate libraries whose manuscript 
stores are seldom open to the literary enquirer, were carefully 
gone through. So thorough was the search, that we know 
that Walbran read through every word of the Catalogues of 
the manuscripts in the British Museum, the Bodleian, and the 
colleges and halls of Oxford to make himself quite sure that 



J 




jemotr* xv. 



he had omitted nothing by accident. We believe he a so went 
through a great part of the manuscript calendars in Her 
Majesty's Record Office, in the same careful manner. Had 
Walbran lived, the second volume of the Memorials was 
to have been issued in 1870. A considerable portion was 
printed at the time of his death, but it has not, as yet, seen the 
light. The Memorials of Fountains^ fragment as it is, will 
always be a work of great value to all who take interest in the 
history of the North of England, or in that great work of spiri- 
tual revival which was carried on by the Cistercian order. 
It is not as a mere antiquary that we regret that this im- 
portant undertaking has not been brought to a conclusion. 
On social grounds, and the still higher one of religion, it is 
important that the monastic life should be set before us as it 
really was — not caricatured, as it too often is, by partizan his- 
torians. Walbran was above all party feeling, and no one 
could have suspected that anything had been left out or coloured 
for purposes of present controversy. 

When the late Earl de Grey determined to clear away the 
rubbish which incumbered the ruins of Fountains Abbey, and 
entirely concealed from view the interesting remains of the 
abbot's house and the surrounding buildings, Mr. Walbran, 
at the earl's request, superintended the excavations. His 
architectural knowledge was also devoted to the service of the 
ancient hall of the Markenfields of Markenfield, when the 
late Lord Grantley undertook the restoration of that interest- 
ing memorial of a fallen race. 

Mr. Walbran's communications to the periodical press are 
incapable of identification. In early life he sometimes wrote in 
the Literary Gazette and the Gentleman's Magazine^ but never, 
or hardly ever, mider his own signature. 

The following papers have appeared in the Reports of the 
Architectural Societies of Torkshire and Lincolnshire, 

On Excavations at Fountains Abbey in 1851. Vol. 
L, p. 263. 

One other Paper on the Excavations at that place 
IK 1854. Vol. III., p. 54. 



J 



XVI. Pim0ir. 

On Excavations at Sawley Abbey. Vol. II., p. 72. 

On Kirkham Priory, Vol. IV., p. 269, 

On St. Wilfrid and the Saxon Church at Ripon. 
Vol. v., p. 63. 

On the Abbey of the Blessed Mary of Byland. 
Vol. VII., p. 219. 

He also published Fountains Abbey in the Olden Time, 
in the Archaologist^ vol. I. 

Observations on the Saxon Crypt under the Cathe- 
dral CnuRck OF Ripon, in the Journal of the Archaological 
Association, 

A Memoir of Henry Jenkins, in The Torkshireman* s 
Book. 1840. 

An Exhortacyon to Nobylles and Commons of the 
Northe, from a Manuscript now in the Record Office. 1843. 

Observations on the necessity of clearing out the 
Conventual Church of Fountains. Privately printed. 
1846. 

A Summer's Day at Bolton Priory. 1847. 

The Visitors' Guide to Redcar. 1848. 

Notes on Manuscripts at Ripley Castle. 1864. 
Printed, but not published. * 

At the request of the present writer, he edited An Inqui- 
sition TAKEN before THE COMMISSIONERS OF SeWERS 

for the County of Lincoln. 1583. 

In 1864 he wrote nearly the whole of Preface II. On the 
Fabric of Hexham Priory, for Canon Raine's second volume 
of Hexham Priory, Surtees Society's Publications, No. 46. 

The greater part of the above were printed by Mr. William 
Harrison, of Ripon. In all Walbran's literary undertakings, 
Harrison was his fellow-worker, and it is but simple justice to 
repeat here, what Walbran always said when living — that to 
Mr. Harrison's local knowledge and .professional skill, the 
public are indebted for very much of that which Walbran pro- 
duced. Although literary research was his greatest pleasure, 
the mechanical part of authorship .was very distasteful to him ; 
and had it not been for the constant sympathy and help which 




txaoxt. 



XVll. 



Harrison afforded, it is doubtfid whether Walbran would have 
ever published some of his most important works. 

The accompanying engraving is from a portrait of Mr. 
Walbran in chalks, taken in the year 185 1, by Mr. J. Barker, 
of Kirkby Malzeard. It is a most faithful likeness. 

Of his power over the melodies of verse it would be rash of 
us to speak. He frequently published fugitive poetry, but 
always under disguise. We have seen and read several of 
these, of which we think highly. The original manuscript of 
one poem, which has never hitherto been printed, never even 
corrected by the author, is now before us. As it relates to a 
legend connected with more than one place mentioned in the 
following pages, it may fitly be given here. 



MARKENFIELD. 



The shades of eve are falling fast around the old moated hall, 
And the breeze creeps slowly o*er the waters beneath its embattled wall, 
But a darker cloud and a colder breath are spreading far within, 
Where soon the Lord of Markenfield must leave this world of sin. 

On a carved couch of massy oak, by tournaye rich overspread, 
Rests the fevered wreck of the haughty form that hath oft the foray led ; 
But the visage stem and undaunted brow are now subdued and mild 
And the voice that rung through the forest deep, become as of a child. 

Not far from hence in an oriel tall, bedight with many a pane 
Of pictured saint, and quartered shield, and many a glorious name. 
Whence the sunbeams cast rich orient tints around the sick man^s head, 
And seemed wild dreams of chivalry, yet lingering round his bed, 

There stands erect a priestly form, whose keen eyes seemed to rest 

On the golden clouds and magic shades that were dying in the west ; 

And he gazed on the fields and waving woods of that antique domain 

And thought of the land where their lord might be when that sun should rise again. 

But the Lord Abbot of Fountains hath come too late ; and *tis none less than he, 

For, nor eucharist nor crucifix may that glazed eye now see : 

Yet the lava blood of the dreams of old oppress his brain again 

And he deemed that he dwelt with his Lady love, *mid the sunny hills of Spain ; 



xviii. ^tmm. 



And taw the blue riyer winding far among the vine clad hills, 
And streamlets dashing down their sides in many silver rills, 
And that on her rich jewelled breast his head is resting now, 
While her clustering raven tresses wave above his burning brow. 

Then that in battle*8 deadliest throng he bore himself amain, 

And dashed on his black charger wild along the ranks again. 

And heard the clash of mailed arms above his crested head 

And the cry of ** St George for England/* and the wailings o*er the dead : 

But swiftly to him that ghast warrior comes that rampant rides the earth. 
And his burning lips are paling fast at the icy kiss of death : 
The Abbot turned to the wasted form and had then his blessing given. 
But the soul that on earth had hallowed it had passed the gates of heaven. 

Rudely and quick his vassals bold are gathering round that bed. 
And eyes that never wept before, gaze wildly on the dead ; 
With piteous whine his favourite hound fawns on the nerveless hand. 
And seems the most unfriended there of all that rugged band. 

Why cried some should youth and strength be snatched thus away 
While age and vice and impotence are with us still to stay ? 
For they recked not of the immortal land to which his soul had gone, 
Nor deemed there was bestowed there what his sorrows here had won. 

Yet the Abbot spoke not of the mysteries of that dread sealed book 
On whose destinies and records e*en the angels may not look, 
But muttered as he gazed on each in a sad and solemn tone 
'' Marvel not thus among yourselves, well is it he has gone." 

Still they deemed it marvel great enough that no lament should be made 

For one who had left a noble home in the cold grave to be laid ; 

No more to rouse from his ferny bed the stag at early morn 

Nor be gladdened on the mountain side by his merry huntsman^s horn. 

No word spake yet the holy man of Paradise's bowers, 

Nor of cloudless climes and Eden groves and of Jerusalem's towers, 

He taught them not the vanity of the joys he here had left 

But he bowed down his manly form, and, — if he could — had wept. 

For the worn course of those tears was dry, whose fount is in the heart. 
And there was left no earthly joy from which he cared to part, 
Since he saw the grave close o'er her form that this fated knight had born. 
And he looked for death as lost travellers look for the blush of morning's dawn. 

Now flies the blast — long loud and fast— o^er Morker's woods on high. 

And lightning wings its fiery darts athwart the midnight sky, 

Skell joins the moan of its troublous tone as it dashes adown the de!l 

And mingles, anon, as it sweeps along with the boom of the dead man^s knell. 

Rijxm, 1843. 



RIPON. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



L F all the divisions of our fevoured island, the 
f County of York has pre-eminent claims on 
F the attention of that numerous class of the 
f community which delights in reviewing the 
'^ abundant beauties of its own insufficiently 
appreciated country. Comprising an area 
sufficient for a principality, meted by great natural features, con- 
taining the proudest memorials of ancient piety and chivalry, as 
well as the most diversified and ingenious applications of modem 
science, it is, in itself, an epitome of the kingdom, and needs 
not the aid of its peculiar natural beauties, to allure those who 
are uncertain whither to direct their steps, with the greatest 
certainty of enjoyment. 

There is however, unfortunately, another class of persons 
who are tempted to this particular part of the kingdom, not so 
much from inclination as necessity. Its mineral springs and 
salubrious climate otFer a most powerful remedial influence to 



2 RIPON. 

those for whom restoration to health would be the greatest 
earthly blessing. And it is not less singular than fortunate that 
the central portion of the county, which is thus chiefly resorted 
to, has within the compass of moderate excursions, an unusual 
variety of most interesting objects, by the inspection of which 
the mind may be refreshed and engaged, whilst physical strength 
is invigorated or attained. 

It is, on this account, that the vicinity of Ripon is particu- 
larly deserving of consideration to those who would thoroughly 
enjoy their visit to Harrogate. Situated on the immediate 
verge of that " Yorkshire plain," of which the competent 
judgment of Bancroft has affirmed that the like is not to be seen 
on this side the Alps, yet elevated gently above commingling 
streams, on the last slope of the great western hills, its land- 
scape scenery comprehends all those features on which a lover 
of the cultivated aspect of Nature delights to dwell — pervaded 
everywhere by a feeling of order, tranquillity, and continuance, 
and enriched by those associations and memorials incident to a 
bye-past centre of progress and civilisation. 

To the consideration of these monuments, and of the institu- 
tutions which originated them, the greater part of the following 
pages will necessarily be devoted ; and seldom does he who 
recognises, even in local history, " philosophy teaching by 
example," observe a more diversified series and intelligible 
development of those elements which have produced our present 
social and political condition. 

As early, indeed, as shelter for himself and pasturage for his 
cattle were among the'most pressing necessities of uncivilised 
man, it is evident that the advantageous position of this place 
would often induce its temporary occupation ; and several coni- 
cal pits on the *''High Common" have been considered the site 
of these dwellings. Yet — even in this migratory and unsettled 
period — ^we have far more direct and conclusive evidence, that 
the immediate vicinity of Ripon was regarded with peculiar 
interest and veneration ; since one of the tribes of the Brigan- 
tian Celts had chosen it as their station for the dispensation of 
justice and the celebration of religious rites ; in fact had made 



i^»«tfM^k.^M 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



it the seat of their government. This position — novel as it 
may be — is, I believe, sufficiently proved by two remarkable 
earth-works, on the high land near " Blois Hall," commanding 
extensive prospects up and down the Vale of lire, as well as of 
the distant ranges of hills which form the side screens of the 
great Yorkshire plain. Like Abury and Stonehenge, which 
they rival in antiquity, their outline is that of a circle, of which 
the diameter is not less than 680 feet ; but no stones remain, 
nor indeed does that material seem to have been used in their 
formation. Though recent agricultural operations have par- 
tially effaced the regularity and proportion of their plan, it is 
sufficiently evident that they were enclosed by a lofty mound ' 
and corresponding trench — the latter being inside, and a platform 
or space about thirty feet wide intervening. This opinion, 
however, may be reduced to certainty, by an inspection of the 
three similar temples at Thornborough, near Tanfield, about 
six miles hence, one of which remains perfect. At two op- 
posite points, bearing nearly north and south, the mound and 
trench, for about the space of twenty-five feet, have been dis- 
continued, in order to form an approach to the area of the temple. 
Outside the mound, also, are some slight vestiges of a further 
avenue, but too indefinite to be traced. But, however obscure 
the denotation of their several parts may have become, the an- 
tiquity and purpose of these places, as temples for the per- 
formance of religious rites, is perhaps ascertained by the 
existence of, at least, eight large Celtic barrows in their im- 
mediate vicinity ; one of which, being on the very ridge of the 
vale, and planted with fir trees, forms a conspicuous and useful 
object to guide a stranger to the site. Two of these barrows 
were opened in 1846, but I found nothing except a few cal- 
cined human bones, the ashes of the oaken funeral pile, and 
some fi*agments of flint arrow heads, such as are still used by 
the North-American Indians. In 1865 the Scientific Society 
published a pamphlet on this subject, which was edited by the 
Rev. W. C. Lukis, and contains all the recent discoveries. 

There is, unfortunately, no access to the most perfect of 
these earth-works by a public path ; but its situation is rendered 



4 RIPON. 

visible from the high road leading from Ripon to Rainton, by 
the presence of two small pyramids or obelisks, built on the 
mound of the temple, about sixty years ago , in the place, it is 
said, of two similar erections, apparently of high antiquity. 
The other earth-work is in a large field called *' Cana," near 
the Ripon and Dishforth road. 

It may not be unreasonable to believe, that si spring; which 
rises in a piece of enclosed ground, called *' Halikeld Field,*' 
about mid-way between these earth-works and the village of 
Melmerby, was the ^^fons sacer^* necessary for the due perfor- 
mance of early religious rites \ and in the absence of all direct evi- 
dence, may, by its consequent pre-eminent sanctity, be supposed 
to have given a name, in Saxon times, to the Wapentake of 
Halikeld, in which both it and the earth-works are situated. 
" Hailekelde landes,*' in Melmerby, are mentioned in charters of 
the thirteenth century. 

Besides the remains of these temples, several evidences of the 
Celtic occupation of the immediate neighbourhood of Ripon 
have been found in the shape of celts, beads, and frag- 
ments of coarse pottery ware. The most interesting object, 
however, is a splendid golden torque, found in i8i8,near Stud- 
ley Hall, concealed between two large stones, which had pro- 
bably once formed a portion of the substratum of a barrow. 
Within 640 yards of this place, and near some broken ground 
in Lindrick farm, was also found a large sword of bronze, 
which the discoverer — inheriting the spirit of the age when it 
had been fabricated — immediately threw away, lest, as he sagely 
averred, he might be bewitched by its possession. 

The few opportunities that have favoured investigation of the 
soil have not presented proof that there was any considerable 
settlement, either on the site or in the immediate vicinity of 
Ripon, during the Roman period 5 though its position, on a 
lingula of land declining between two converging rivers, and its 
proximity to their city of Isurium, may induce the idea that it 
was not entirely unoccupied by that people. Indeed, among 
the papers of the learned Gale, was the sketch of a tesselated 
pavement of that period, which was discovered here ; and, a 



■^"- 1- 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



small vase of Roman workmanship — now in my possession 
— ^was found not many years ago at the depth of seven feet, 
on the west-side of the " Horsefair.'* But these indicia, with 
a few silver and copper coins, dating from the reign of Ves- 
pasian to that of Constantine, turned up in and near the streets, 
comprise, at present, all the evidence that exists of Roman 
occupation in Ripon itself. The great Roman road, which 
retained, here, its name of "Watling Strete" in the thirteenth 
century, passed Ripon, at a distance of three miles on the east ', 
and a vicinal way, still called " Roman Rigg " — stretching 
towards the exploratory camp behind Hackfall — may be traced, 
through Lindrick farm, to the river Laver, at an equal distance 
on the west side of the city. In the year 1867 ^ome excava- 
tions were made by the Ripon Scientific Society, at a place called 
Castle Dykes, by which the remains of fragments of tesselated 
pavements and other workmanship were disclosed. These dis- 
coveries have found a chronicler in Mr. T. C. Heslington. 

Descending, now, to the period when written evidence im- 
piarts the assurance of details and dates to our narrative, we find 
that, as early as the seventh century, the industry of Saxon 
agriculturists was rewarded, here, by the fertility of the Vale of 
Urc. Alcfrid, prince of Deira, or the southern portion of the 
kingdom of Northumbria, was lord of the soil, and about the 
year 660, bestowed on Eata, abbat of Melrose, a portion of 
ground, at Ripon, whereon to erect a monastic foundation. 

It is probable, notwithstanding, that the village, which con- 
sequently arose might have remained in the same insignificant 
condition which was the doom of many places where monas- 
teries were founded in the Saxon times, if it had not happened 
that, on the expulsion of the Scottish monks, prince Alcfrid 
gave the monastery to Wilfrid, a pious, learned, and enthusiastic 
man, who had been his tutor, and who, ever after, re- 
garded the place with peculiar affection. With the monastery 
were bestowed the lands appurtenant to thirty, or as some write 
forty dwellings, being probably the whole adjacent territory 
which was then brought into cultivation. After Wilfrid was 
elevated to the see of York, he rebuilt this monastery with all the 



6 RIPON. 

superior elegance and taste he had acquired during his sojourn 
in Italy and foreign lands ; and by his patronage and exertions, 
unquestionably, the huts that had been reared around the oratory 
of the holy fathers became the centre of civilisation of the 
adjacent country, and the germ of the future town. 

The silence of the early chronicles allows us to hope that 
there was peace at Ripon during the warfare and. brutal de- 
vastation that prevailed in the North during the eighth and 
ninth centuries. According, however, to some indefinite 
accounts, it shared this cruel fate towards the close of the 
latter period ; for about the year 860, when the Danes were 
ravaging the country with insatiable fury, they are said to have 
razed the town to the ground, and done much injury to the 
monastery. 

There remains, indeed, to our own day, a monument of 
some dreadful carnage that occurred here awhile after. This is 
a largje conical tumulus at the east side of the town, about a 
bow shot from the cathedral, composed throughout of sand, 
gravel, and human bones, mingled in that indiscriminate man- 
ner that would occur when the victims of the battle-field were 
hastily collected in one vast mound, that served alike as their 
memorial and their tomb- The teeth and bones of horses, too, 
have been found in quantities within a short distance around its 
base. This singular and mysterious object, which was called 
in Leland's time Ilshow, but now Ailcy Hill, measures about 
three hundred yards in circumference at its base, and about 
seventy in sloping height. Etymologists h^ve connected its 
name with a presumption that Ella, the Northumbrian king, 
fought, or was subsequently slain here in 867 ; and that he, or 
those who fell with him, were deposited in a " how " or hill 
that was designated by his name. The fact of his death 
having occurred here is, however, clearly disproved by several 
ancient chroniclers,* who state that he fell with king Osbert, 
at York ; and the Saxon personal appellation of '' Elsi " har- 
monises better with the vulgar pronunciation, which has been 
immemorially '' Ailcy.'* Still its own internal evidence has 

* Chron. Sax. ed. Wheloc p. 532. Asserij Annales, XV. Scrip. 159. 



,/^,^,^,^tt^am 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 7 

proved that it was thrown up in, or very shortly after, Ella's 
time; for, in digging in the hill — which, until the late en- 
closure of the common where it stood, was used as a gravel 
pit — there were found, in the early part of 1695, several stycas 
of Osbert and Ella, Ethelred, Eanred, and Aelfed. Within 
memory, also, many have been found in the hill ; but, through 
ignorance of their value, all have been dispersed or lost. 

Hitherto, the soil of Ripon may have been possessed by the 
successive monarchs of Northumbria, with the exception of 
what had been given by them to Wilfrid and his monastery ; 
if the statement — believed as early as 1280* — is correct, that 
Athelstan, who reigned from 925 to 940, gave the Mano^r of 
Ripon to Wulstan, Archbishop of York. Yet little reliance c^n 
be placed on the mediaeval interpretations of a Saxon grant, and the 
truth — as suggested both by the authentic portion of the charters 
of Athelstan, printed in the " Monasticon,"t as well as by the 
petition of Archbishop Bowet to Parliament, in 141 5 J — seems, 
rather, to be that Athelstan, when he came with his army to 
Ripon, on his expedition against the Scots, vowed, that, if he 
should prove successful, he would endow the churches of York, 
Ripon, and Beverley, with profitable privileges ; and that his 
grant consisted in the creation and conveyance of peculiar and 
exempt legal jurisdiction over those manorial and appurtenant 
lands already acquired by the see of York, and, since, compre- 
hended in what is termed the franchise, or "Liberty of Ripon." 

When king Edred proceeded to the North, to revenge the 
perfidy of the Northumbrians, about the year 948,$ he de- 
vastated and burned the town and monastery of Ripon, in con- 
sequence, as it is supposed, of Archbishop Wulstan, its lord, 
being implicated in the rebellion. Odo, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, visited the province of York very soon after this devasta- 
tion. || He^had pity, as Leland observes,1[ on the desolation of 
Ripon monastery, and began, or caused a *'new work to be 

* Placita de Quo Warr. R. C. p. 197. -f- Mon. Angl. i. 172. 

X Rot. Pari. vol. iv., p. 85. 
§ A.D. 948, says Matt. Westm., p. 368 j but A.D. 950, Sim. Dunelm., X Script., 
1., c. 166. 

II R. de Diceto. X Scrip, c. 455. % Itin. i. 91. 



8 RIPON. 

edified wher the present minstre now is." Prosperity seems to 
have followed his exertions so effectually that, after a lapse of 
a century, and in the reign of Edward the Confessor, the manor 
had acquired the annual value of 32/.* Archbishop'^Aldred 
was then its lord. He was the last Archbishop of York under 
the Saxon dynasty, and crowned William the Conqueror. 

It has been fortunate for the town that the Conqueror be- 
stowed the manor on Aldred's successor, Thomas, rather jthan on 
a layman, who might have neglected it, in consequence of its 
comparatively defenceless position. He had been a canon of 
Bayeux ; and having aided William with a large sum 'of money 
to prosecute his expedition, was thus rewarded with the primacy 
of York. During his time the town shared so severely in the 
devastation that succeeded the siege of York in 1069, that, 
when Domesday survey was taken sixteen years after, the value 
of the manor was depreciated to 7/. ioj. ; and most of the 
appurtenant berewics were still desolate and waste. Under the 
fostering and powerful patronage of the Archbishops of York, 
with whom Ripon was a favourite residence J until Walter Grey 
erected the palace at BishopthorpCy the prosperity of the town 
increased apace. The death of Archbishop Thomas^occurred 
here Nov. i8th, iioo ;§ and Murdac retired hither, when at 
issue with his Chapter. The hosts of retainers and followers 
that these great dignitaries daily maintained, together with the 
influx of persons who attended the fairs they had been pri- 
vileged to hold by kings Henry and Stephen, could not fail in 
that day — ^when commerce was confined to chartered localities 
— to confer lasting benefit on the town. The number of per- 
sons employed in the erection of the church, and the several 
ecclesiastical structures around, must, also, from the long 
period over which these works extended, have contributed to 
the same result. Before the close of the thirteenth century, 
and, probably at a far earlier period, the manufacture of wool- 
len cloth had been established in the town, which had arrived 
at such importance as to be deemed worthy of representation 
in parliament. 

* Domesday Book. f Ibid | Stubbs, Act Pont £bor. X Script ii.,^ c. 1709. 

§ Bromtoiiy X Scrip, ii. 801. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



On the 3rd of October, 1295,* it was summoned to send 
two members to a parliament, to be held at Westminster on the 
13th of November following. It was summoned four times 
afterward, and until the 19th Edward II., when it ceased to 
send members, until the last parliament of Edward VI.,t from 
which period it has been summoned to the present time. 

About the year 13 19, when the country was distracted by 
the contentions of the imbecile Edward and his barons, Robert 
Bruce seized on several of the towns and military stations in 
the north. He sacked and ravaged the Yorkshire towns of 
Northallerton, Boroughbridge, Skipton, and Scarborough ; and 
having turned his army in this direction, remained at Ripon 
three days, where he imposed a tribute of one thousand marks 
on the terrified inhabitants ; two hundred and forty of which 
they immediately paid, fearing lest he should put his threat of 
burning the town into execution. 

- The evil day was only protracted for a while : for, after Bruce's 
pursuit of King Edward to York, his army again visited Ripon, 
when, finding the wretched inhabitants unable to comply with 
their demands, they perpetrated many brutal atrocities : putting 
to death among others, several ministers of the collegiate 
church, which according to Walsingham, they endeavoured to 
destroy by fire. 

Notwithstanding the calamity which had befallen the town. 
King Edward summoned a parliament to meet here on the 14th 
of November, 1322 ; but it did not assemble, being removed, 
by writ of proclamation, to York. 

Though this incident may be indicative only of a temporary 
prosperity, yet the manufacture of woollen cloth, on which the 
staple and progressive character of the town depended, was, 
probably, never after prosecuted with its former success. In- 
deed the woollen trade, generally, was at this period, in a very 
hopeless condition, and never revived, until Edward III. in- 
duced certain Flemish^manufacturers to settle in England, one of 
whose establishments at York would, alone, interfere unfavour- 
ably with the more unskilftil operations conducted here. Yet 



♦ Palgrave's Pari. Writs, i. 36, 85. 
C 



t Willis's Not. Pari., viii., p. 66-7. 



lO RIPON. 

the resort of the country people to its fairs and markets, where 
— in the deficiency of shops — goods of all descriptions were sold, 
together with the presence and patronage of two great ecclesias- 
tical establishments, must have maintained the town in a res- 
pectable commercial position. 

During the remainder of the fourteenth century, nothing 
occurred of general interest in the annals of Ripon \ and through 
that which succeeded it, we would hope that the absence of 
striking incident is indicative of a state of peace and content- 
ment ; escaping the vicissitudes and troubles to which it might 
have been exposed by the possession of a permanent fortifica- 
tion, and subjection to a military lord of the fee, during the 
desolating wars of York and Lancaster. 

During the fifteenth century the Plumpton correspondence 
affords one striking picture of the state of the town in 1441, when 
at the time of the fair Archbishop Kempe garrisoned Ripon 
with a number of his Northumbrian tenants. They are de- 
scribed as going '' robling" up and down the town, and longing 
for an affray with '* the knaves and lads of the forest." 

But whatever may have been the degree of vigour with 
which the staple manufacture was prosecuted here during these 
periods, in the middle of the sixteenth century, when a new 
combination of the elements of social progress was evolved, it 
sensibly declined ; and the trade was transferred to the more 
congenial site of Halifax. LJand, who was here about the 
year 1534, observed that ''there hath bene, hard on the farther 
ripe of Skelle, a great numbre of tenters for woollen clothes, 
wont to made in the town of Ripon. But now idelness is sore 
incresid in the town, and clothe makeing almost decayed." 

The simultaneous dissolution of the religious houses inter- 
fered als6, unfavourably, with the social comfort and temporal 
prosperity of the town ; not only by diverting the proceeds of 
large and distant estates, which had been freely expended here, 
into absent or avaricious hands, but by exchanging the solace of 
ancient ties and associations for the poisonous infusion of theo- 
logical strife ; so that when a " great plague " visited Ripon, in 
1546, the full measure of its affliction was filled up. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. II 

This State of derangement and discord continued with little 
abatement until the famous " Rising in the North," in 1569, 
when Richard Norton and Thomas Markenfield, the lords of 
domains hard by Ripon, which had bestowed on their race these 
ancient and chivalrous names, allowed the long suppressed 
bitterness of their religious discontent to plot and urge on that 
ill-starred expedition, in which the earls of Northumberland 
and Westmerland were put forward as the ostensible leaders. 
The former of these noblemen had a seat at TopclifFe, seven 
miles from Ripon, where the rebels held their early meetings. 
They came here, on their road from Durham, on Friday, the 
1 8th of November, 1569, and were here on the 19th, when 
many joined them. They had a muster at the Market-cross ; 
and thp earls made a proclamation, which Sir George Bowes — 
their adversary — describes as the most effectual thing they did. 
Here Norton displayed his memorable banner, and mass was 
celebrated in the collegiate church. After putting Sir William 
Ingilby, who had opposed them, to flight, they marched to 
Knaresborough j and at length to Clifford Moor, whence they, 
injudiciously, returned to the North ; but the footmen risen in 
Ripon and the vicinity had seen enough of the campaign, and 
refused to pass their homes. On the night of the i6th of 
December, the lords Warwick and Clinton arrived at Ripon, 
in pursuit of the rebels ; and in the next month a dreadful de- 
monstration of their victorious arms was exhibited in this place. 
As a significant and memorable warning, there were ordered to 
be executed here, all the rebel constables of the West-Riding, 
except those of Wetherby, Boroughbridge, and Tadcaster ; all 
the offending serving-men of the West-Riding ; and lastly — 
within sight of their neighbours, and homes, and kindred — the 
misguided townsmen of Ripon. 

Towards the close of the sixteenth century, there seems, also, 
to have prevailed much animosity and discori in the borough, 
chiefly caused by the uncertain mode of electing the chief 
officer, who was called the " Wakeman," and the irregular 
constitution of the municipal body ; which, having existed — 
though, perhaps, originally as a Merchant Guild — apparently 



12 RIPON. 

from the Saxon times, became, in the absence of legally defined 
powers, a law unto itself, and therefore unable either to com- 
mand respect, or to withstand that rising spirit of inductive 
argument which was not to be satisfied merely with traditional 
authority. With the consent of Archbishop Hutton — Lord 
of the Manor and Liberty — whose predecessor. Cardinal 
Wolsey, had similarly interfered in 15 17, a definite arrange- 
ment was attempted in 1598 ; and a code of Bye-laws framed 
for the general constitution of the body and government of the 
town. Much of the irregularity being " supposed a long time 
by y« most p'te of ye wisest and best accompt in and about 
ye said Towne to have fallen out by reason of y* confusion, and 
y^ number of aldermen being never limited w^ any certaine 
number," they were then reduced from twenty-nine to twelve. 
Twelve more were added not long after ; but the system being 
still open to objection, the inhabitants, soon after the accession 
of king James, petitioned the monarch for a '' more certain and 
undoubted mode of election." 

This was granted to them, June 26th, 1604, in a Charter of 
Incorporation, obtained chiefly by the efforts of Mr. Hugh 
Ripley, a "merchant and mercer" of the town, who was 
Wakeman at that time, and was nominated by the crown, as 
first mayor. ' 

In consequence of the plague raging at York in 1604, the 
Court of the Lord President of the North was adjourned to 
Ripon, where it was held a short time. 

When King James I. was on his progress to Scotland, in 
16 1 7, he honoured Ripon with a brief visit. He left York on 
Tuesday, April 15th, and came here that evening ; when, as 
the official minute in the Corporation Register says, he lodged 
at " the house of Mr. George Dawson, and at his Highnes 
comynge to the said towne, Mr. Thomas Procter, Recorder of 
this corporation, made a speech vnto his Ma^« ; wch done, there 
was presented unto his Highnes, by Mr. Symon Browne Maior, 
the Alderman and Burgesses of the said Corporation, a gilte 
bowle and a pair of Rippon spurres, w^li spurres coste vu and 
were such a contentment to his Ma^* as his Highnes did wear 



. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

the same the day foUowyinge at his dep'ture forth of the said 
towne." , 

The plague again visited Ripon in 1625, so severely that the 
country people dreaded approaching the town, and their children 
were, niore than once, baptised on the common pasture. From 
the commencement of its fatality on the 2nd of June, 1625, to 
its termination on the 4th of May, 1626, there died in all ninety- 
six persons, whose names and places of abode are entered, 
separately, in the Parish Register. 

In the spring of the year 1632, Charles I. passed through 
Ripon on his way to Edinburgh, where he was crowned on the 
1 8th of July following. 

The untenable position of the town exempted it from sharing, 
severely, in the horrors of the Grand Rebellion. One of those 
wars of words that preceded that most dire explosion was how- 
ever, for a while, maintained here : for the Scottish lords having 
refused, in 1640, to treat at York with the English Commis- 
sioners, Ripon was the place agreed on for their meeting. 

The house in which this extraordinary conference was held, 
together with the table and benches that remained in the apart- 
ment used by the Commissioners, are still remembered by 
several persons. The great interest that attached to this build- 
ing could not preserve it from destruction. It was pulled down 
many years ago, and its site now forms part of Mr. Cayley's 
gardens, near Ailcy Hill. The proceedings of the Commis- 
sioners are recorded in a quarto tract of some rarity. 

Another brief incident of this sad drama was enacted 
here, in March, 1642-3, when Sir Thomas Mauleverer en- 
tered the town with a detachment of the parliamentary forces. 
In the exercise of their usual blasphemy and licentiousness, they 
riotously and profanely intruded themselves into the Collegiate 
Church, and showed what kind of liberty they desired, and 
were worthy to enjoy, by breaking the painted windows, and 
defacing the memorials of the dead. " But,'* says Gent 
(writing about ninety years after, in his usual quaint style), 
'^ they were soon after attacked by a detachment of Royallists 
from Skipton Castle, then governed by that glorious sufferer for 



14 RIPON. 

his loyalty. Sir John Mallory, of Studley Royal, assisted by 
several Rippon champions, whose duty and allegiance was un- 
alterable ; who, coining upon the rebels by surprise in the 
Market-place, where they had kept their main guard, made 
them feel the sharpness of their swords by a better fete than 
they deserved." Some were taken prisoners, and sent to 
" Skipton and other places." 

But the energies of many " glorious sufferers for loyalty '* 
could not quench that fierce blaze that was so soon to scathe 
the land. In the very streets where the *' Rippon champions " 
had enjoyed their little triumph, they soon after beheld their 
unfortunate and misguided king a captive in the hands of 
his subjects. On his way from Newcastle to Holmby, he 
came here on the 6th of February, 1646, having then left Rich- 
mond ; and remained until the 8th, when he was conveyed to 
Wakefield. He was attended by a strong guard of horse and 
foot, and it is remarkable that Ripon was the only place, of the 
ten stages, where he was allowed to remain two nights. 

The ascendency of the Parliament affected materially the 
institutions of the town, which were all in antagonism with the 
popular feeling. The Manorial rights were seized, and sold to 
Lord Fairfax in 1647. The lands appurtenant to the Royalty 
were alienated between that year and 1650. The Chapter of 
the Cathedral was suppressed : and many members of the Cor- 
poration became so insensible to the welfare of their country 
and their town, as to advocate the principles of puritanical 
dissent and licentious insubordination. 

When order was restored by the accession of king Charles 
II., the Corporations were purged of their unworthy members ; 
and a Commission for that purpose sat here, the 23rd of 
September, 1662. The vacancies were supplied by persons of 
great respectability, who did all that corporate influence could 
effect for the advancement of the town. For some time they 
directed their attention to the renewal of their charter, and the 
grant of two fairs for cattle and horses, which they deemed would 
be beneficial to the inhabitants. Nothing, however, was 
effected until the accession of James XL, when, after a consulta- 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 1 5 

tion with the Archbishop of York, they surrendered their char- 
ter, September 2nd, 1684, to the king, who was pleased to 
restore it with another from himself, dated I2th January, 1686, 
confirming the privileges of the Corporation, and conceding the 
fairs they desired. 

From the close of the seventeenth century, the history of the 
town becomes devoid of general interest. It had its own little 
squabbles about the Pretender and the Pope 5 but basking in 
the sunshine of agricultural prosperity, and restrained by the in- 
fluence of a wealthy and benevolent family in one bond of 
political feeling that taught '' Whatever is, is right," there was 
generated a disbelief in the possibility of change, which has, too 
often, been ruthlessly dispelled, in the great social and com- 
mercial struggles which have ensued. 

During the last twenty years, the ancient institutions of the 
town — and, especially, from that exclusive character in which 
their original efficacy existed — have been despoiled in silent 
antagonism with those measures by which legislators have at- 
tempted to direct their operation, in a changed condition of 
society. The special privilege of the burgage holders to elect the 
members of Parliament was taken away by the Reform Bill. 
The numerical as well as the adminstrative power of the 
Corporation was reduced by the general statute of 1835. The 
manorial jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York has been 
abridged, his Court of Pleas all but absorbed in the County 
Court, and his once lucrative franchise of fairs and markets in- 
fringed even within the parish. The constitution of the Chap- 
ter of the Cathedral has been remodelled ; and, lastly, the 
mercantile competition of other and distant places is encouraged 
by the formation of a railway to the city. 

The last, however, is the only change which may, ultimately, 
affect the prosperity or settled condition of the place. Al- 
though, of course, it was expected to work — here as elsewhere — 
such an hopeful effect as no man would limit, even in imagina- 
tion ; it may be as probable that — with no peculiar advantage of 
mineral wealth, nor of position, except in an unlimited water 
power — Ripon will not escape that dominant commercial in- 



l6 RIPON. 

fluence which has arisen on the ruin of local immunities and 
associations; but that, henceforth, it will be exclusively sought 
and enjoyed by those who would retire from successful con- 
tention with the world. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 



Circumscribing the city is a district — comprehending 33,330 
acres and twenty-four townships — in which, from the time of 
the Saxon king Athelstan, the Archbishop of York, in right 
of his manor, has exercised an exclusive franchise or juris- 
diction, immemorially known by the name of "the Liberty 
of Ripon," and occasionally by that of " Ripponshire." Its 
outline — ^which has diverted the boimdary of the West Riding 
from its natural and ' general direction with the river Ure — 
agrees, as might have been supposed, nearly with that of the 
parish ; but several townships which are included, geographi- 
cally, in the parochial, are without the civil district ; in conse- 
quence, I presume, of their ancient feudal dependence on the 
barony and castle of Kirkby-Malzeard. It comprehends also 
the adjacent parish of Nidd. 

Within this district, until successive restrictions of the legis- 
lature, the Archbishop enjoyed those extraordinary privileges 
termed legally, ^^Jura Regalia^^ the nature of which cannot be 
detailed here. Suffice is to say, that by the exclusion of the 
High Sheriff, he had unlimited judicial authority, both over the 
property and the lives of the resiants,'the one branch remaining 
in the Court of Pleas, the other represented, in an abridged 
form, by the Court of Quarter Sessions. The "Liberty" also 
maintains its exempt character, in its offices of High Steward, 
Justices of the Peace, Coroner, Clerk of the Peace, Chief Con- 
stable, and Gaoler. 

The incorporation of the borough has been already alluded to, 
as well as that reformation in 1835, by which it has obtained 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 1 7 

neither an accession of influence or energy, but an additional 
element of excitement and contention, and the burdensome 
administration of formal provisions, unnecessary to the welfare 
or government of a small community. The Corporation now 
consists of a Mayor, four Aldermen, and twelve Councillors. 
The Mayor and his successors are Justices of the peace for 
the Borough, by virtue of the Act 5 and 6 William IV., c. 76, 
s. 57, together with other gentlemen named in her Majesty's 
commission dated 23rd September, 1854. The Mayor is also 
in the commission for the Liberty of Ripon, during his year of 
office. 

If a visitor should remain in the city during the evening, he 
may hear the sounding of the Mayor's horn, one of the most 
ancient customs that lingers in the kingdom. It formerly 
announced the setting of the watch, whence the chief officer of 
the town derived his Saxon style of " Wakeman," but it has, 
of course, now lapsed into a formality. Three blasts, long, dull, 
and dire, are given at nine o'clock at the Mayor's door by his. 
official Horn-blower, and one afterwards at the market-cross, 
while the seventh bell of the cathedral is ringing. It was 
ordained in 1598 that it should be blown, according to 
ancient custom, at they^wr corners of the cross, at nine o'clock ; 
after which time, if any house " on the gate syd within the 
towne" was robbed, the Wakeman was bound to compensate 
the loss, if it was proved that he " and his servants did not their 
duetie at y® time." To maintain this watch he received from 
every householder in the. town that had but one door, the annual 
tax of twopence ; but from the owner " of a gate door, and a 
backe dore iiijd by the year, of dutie." The original horn, worn 
by the Wakeman, decorated with silver badges and the insignia 
of the trading companies of the town, but shamefully pillaged 
in 1686, has been several times adorned, especially by John 
Aislabie, Esq., Mayor in 1702 ; and in 1854. Since the year 
1607 it has been worn on certain days by the Serjeant-at-Mace, 
in procession. 

In 1859 ^^ official chain of gold was purchased by public 
subscription, and presented to Robert Kearsley, Esq., the 

D 



i8 



RIPON. 



Mayor, for the use of himself and his successors. It is a very 
handsome ornament, and is decorated with the Ripon spur and 
other local badges. It cost nearly 250/., and was made by 
Messrs. Hunt and Roskell. 

The other corporate bodies and institutions in the city, may 
most conveniently be noticed, in surveying the places where 
they are held or administered. 



COMMERCIAL POSITION. 

There is no staple manufacture carried on in the city, unless 
the establishment of three individuals may be allowed to re- 
present the saddle-tree making, carried on here as early as the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. After the manufacture of woollen 
cloth declined, in the sixteenth century, that of spurs was car- 
ried on with such skill and success that the phrase '' As true 
as Ripon rowels " — applied to express the character of a man 
of honest principles — became proverbial throughout the king- 
dom. Ben Jonson in his '' Staple of Newes, has" — 

** Why, there's an angel, if my spurs 
Be not right Rippon." 

and Davenant, in his " Wits," — 

** Whip me with wire, beaded with rowels of 
Sharp Rippon spurs.'* 

This trade, together with that of button-making, and some 
other kinds of hardware, prospered throughout the seventeenth 
and part of the eigjhteenth century, but the advantages obtained 
in the great seats of general hardware manufacture, by the 
division of labour and a more liberal application of capital, at 
length caused its decline ; Alderman John Terry, who occupied 
the site of the second house westward from the Town-hall, 
and died within recollection, having been the last spurrier. 
Subsequently, no kind of manufacture has been peculiarly fol- 
lowed in the city, though well directed and persevering indi- 
vidual exertion, in several branches of trade, has been success- 
fully rewarded. 



COMMERCIAL POSITION. I9 

The weekly market is held on Thursday, and is well supplied 
with all kinds of agricultural produce of superior quality, large 
quantities of butter, eggs, and fowls being particularly required 
by agents for the manufacturing districts. There is a supple- 
mentary market on Saturday evening, for the sale of garden 
produce and butcher's meat ; and a wool market, held in the 
'' Old Market-place," occasionally during the season. 

There are fairs here, also, on the first Thursday after the 20th 
day succeeding old Christmas day ; on the 13th and 14th of 
May ; on the first Thursday and Friday in June ; on the first 
Thursday in November ; and on the 23rd of November, which 
is a general hiring day for servants. In 1863 a monthly stock 
sale for beasts, sheep, and pigs, was established by Mr. Francis 
Smith, auctioneer, and continues to be well patronised. A most 
graphic idea of the scenes enacted,' occasionally, at the mediaeval 
fairs here, may be gathered from an interesting narrative, 
published in " the Plumpton Correspondence." 

From a very early period — doubtless far more remote than 
the thirteenth century, when there is record of the fact — Ripon 
seems to have been a noted place for horse- fairs, and the most 
spacious street in it is still called 'Sthe Horsefair," though it is 
now used rather for a periodical exhibition than the sale of 
horses. It also promoted, at a comparatively early period, the 
breeding of horses, by the establishment of races, a course being 
formed on the High Common, in 17 13, at the expense of the 
Corporation. During the time of the Aislabies, they were well 
encouraged ; but subsequently fell off considerably in character, 
and finally were abandoned on the enclosure of the common in 
1826. With a view chiefly to afford amusement at the annual 
feast of St. Wilfrid in August, they were re-established, on a 
new course on the opposite side of the river, in 1837, where 
they were held until 1864 ; when by reason of the encroach- 
ment of the river upon the course, they were removed to a 
more convenient site, to the west of the city, called Red Bank. 
Here a costly Grand Stand has been erected, the foundation 
stone of which was laid by the Mayor, (Mr. B. P. Ascough), 
on the 13th of February, 1865. 



20 RIPON. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 

The general position of the city is sufficiently indicated by the 
map and the vignette at the head of our first chapter, showing 
its bearing with reference to the vale of Ure, and the great 
Yorkshire plain beyond. It will be sufficient, therefore, now, 
to say that Ripon stands, chiefly, on a sheltered situation, de- 
clining from the north-west towards the confluence of the 
river Ure wkh the Laver and the Skell. The geological 
stratification, in its immediate vicinity, is of the tertiary cha- 
racter, the city standing on the boundary between the new red- 
sandstone of the Yorkshire Plain, which shows itself pro- 
minently in a quarry beyond the railway station, and its great 
western terrace of magnesian limestone, which appears on the 
opposite side of the valley at Studley, WhitcliflF, Morkershaw, 
and especially at Quarry Moor, where extensive lime-kilns have 
long been established. The soil, occasionally affording useful 
beds of clay, is generally of a gravelly nature, although there is 
much fertile land around the city, and trees show their satisfac- 
tion in its qualitjr, both in their unusual size and exuberant 
foliage. 

The antiquary Leland, who was here in the time of King 
Henry VIII. , observed, and appearances still confirm his posi- 
tion, that " the olde towne of Ripon stoode much by north 
and est" as he "could gather by viewing of it." Stammergate 
and Allhallowgate, from their proximity to the Monastery that 
was the germ of the town, were therefore indubitably the most 
ancient portion of it, and from them the dwellings diverged, 
until the Market-place, and its western and southern adja- 
cencies were formed, before the sixteenth century. These 
later parts, in Leland's day, were " the best of the toune 5 " and 
he remarks, too, what few could have otherwise imagined, 
that " the very place wher the market stede and hart of the 
towne is, was sumtyme caulled holly hille, of holly trees ther 



TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 21 

growing, wherby it apperith that this parte of the towne is of a 
newer buyldynge." 

The plan and prospect of Ripon, recorded upwards of a hun- 
dred years ago, in the several works of Gent and Buck, exhibit 
much the same appearance as remained until the beginning of 
the present century, since which time many improvements have 
been effected by paving, flagging, and draining; streets j the enclos- 
ing of the adjacent common lands ; the rebuilding of many old, 
humble, and inconvenient houses ; and the erection and embel- 
lishment of new ones, especially in the immediate environs. 
The era of re-construction preceding the present appears to 
have been during the seventeenth century ; but the outline of the 
picturesque gable, which was so charming a feature in our old 
street architecture, is still unwittingly retained in many of the 
modern erections. Most of these fronts were but formed of 
timber frames, covered with lath and plaster— each story pro- 
jecting over that below. One by one they have been gradually 
superseded by more convenient arrangements, and substantial 
materials ^ and, I believe, an ancient hostelry, in the north- 
west corner of the Market-place, remains now the least mutil- 
ated example. 

Most of the Streets are narrow, like those of other ancient 
towns, where, originally, little more was required than passage 
for man and horse. The chief Market-place is very spacious, 
and nearly square, measuring at the widest points 115 yards by 
81. It is adorned by a handsome Cross, 90ft. high, erected in 
178 1, by William Aislabie, Esq., of Studley, who represented 
the borough in Parliament sixty years : and an elegant Town- 
hall, of which more will be said hereafter. 



22 RIPON. 



"THE OLD ABBAY OF RIPON." 

We have already noticed that Eata, abbot of Melrose, obtained, 
about the year 660, certain lands in Ripon, from Alchfrid, prince 
of Deira, whereon to construct and maintain a monastic estab- 
lishment. The beginning of their career was, from their own 
report at least, deemed auspicious ; for their Hostillar, the holy 
monk Cuthbert, who accompanied the abbot and subsequently 
became the sainted patron of the church of Durham, is, in this 
place, said to have received and entertained an angel. The 
monks had scarcely erected their humble dwelling, and enjoyed 
the superior comforts and conveniences of their new situation, 
before Alchfrid their patron was dissatisfied at their method 
of ecclesiastical discipline, particularly their mode of computing 
the time of Easter. Having the option therefore given, 
whether to quit the place, or conform to his wishes, they chose 
the more independent alternative and departed.* 

On this untoward circumstance, which occurred before 664, 
Prince Alchfrid bestowed the monastery, and the lands appur- 
tenant to thirty dwellings, on one Wilfrid, whose learning and 
piety had captivated the monarch and his court; and who 
henceforth, and from this circumstance, fills an important page, 
not only of the annals of the town, but of the whole Christian 
church. 

Soon after Wilfrid had received this mark of royal approba- 
tion, he was ordained presbyter in this his monastery at Ripon, 
by -^gilbert, a foreign bishop who was visiting the Northum- 
brian court, and was desired by Alchfrid to perform the cere- 
mony. 

The intercourse of this monarch with Wilfrid, and the 
peculiar tendency of his own mind to adopt the ceremonial 
of the Church of Rome in several matters that agitated 

* Eddij. Vit. Wilfndi, c. viii. Bede Eccl. Hist L., v. c. 20, and L. iii, c. 25. 



THE OLD ABBAY OF RIPON. 



23 



the clergy of this island, inclined him to join his father in 
holding a solemn synod, to deliberate and furnish just grounds 
whereby they might regulate the ecclesiastical practice of 
Northumbria in these particulars. This assembly met at 
Whitby in 664, King Oswi himself being present, who, 
although educated in the Scottish discipline, pronounced now 
in favour of the Church of Rome — fearing as he said, lest, 
when he presented himself at the gates of heaven, St. Peter 
might refuse admission to one who had otherwise counteracted 
the progress of his church on earth. The bishopric of York 
or Northumbria being vacant soon after, Wilfrid, who had 
shewn much zeal and ability in supporting the Romish cause at 
the Synod, was elected to that important office. 

Holding that the British bishops were no better than schis- 
matics, as not in communion with the Church of Rome, he was 
allowed his request to receive consecration from some of the 
many bishops of France : but, having enjoyed their congenial 
society longer than was agreeable to his royal patron, Ceadda 
was placed in the archiepiscopal chair ; and when Wilfrid re- 
turned he found himself obliged to retire to his monastery of 
Ripon,* which it seems, he made his occasional home for three 
years — being, during a portion of that time, engaged in mis- 
sionary labours among the South Saxons. Theodore, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, at length visited Northumbria, and 
Wilfrid was reinstated in his archiepiscopal station. 

Soon after his elevation, he began to embody those dignified 
views and principles of architecture, which he had acquired in his 
continental tours, in the improvement of his cathedral church 
at York ; and immediately after, it would seem, from the con- 
secutive narrative of his chaplain, f he determined to erect anew 
monastery at Ripon; Of what form and extent the old abbey 
had been, is of course unknown. Its site, occupying upwards 
of two acres and a half, is still circumscribed, as I presume, by 
a portion of Stammergate, Priest-lane, and a nameless road on 
the south ; and the particular portion of it where the church is 
supposed to have stood is indicated by two poplar trees, planted 



* Eddij Vita Wilfridi, c. xiv. 



f Ibid, c. xvii. 



^4 



RIPON. 



there by the late Dean of Ripon ; to whose church, this field, 
still called " Scots Monument Yard,** yet belongs. The 
buildings were undoubtedly of wood — judging alike from the 
fashion of the Scots,J and the ability of the times. The raised 
platform by the trees seems composed of gravel ; but there are 
foundations diverging from thence that have disclosed large 
stones. Several Saxon stycas, of the Northumbrian king Ethel- 
red, have been dug up in this field ; and a portion of a cylin- 
drical column of grit stone, 4ft. 5 in. in circumference. This 
might, however, have formed part of some subsequent oratory. 
Wilfrid, from some cause now unintelligible, chose the site 
of his new foundation about 200 yards from the old building ; 
and on the western side of what is now, and might even then 
have been, the public street. We know not how he, whose 
soul was filled with enthusiastic resolves and lofty inspirations, 
developed and bodied forth the dreams and designs that had 
been excited by the triumphant and immortal piles of the ruined 
City of the World: still, there can be no reasonable doubt 
that he erected here one of the most stately structures in the 
island. An account of its appearance would now be as inestim- 
able as it is irretrievable. Even Eddius, who had ministered many 
years within its walls, is content to describe them in brief terms, 
and — anxious rather to record the exalted piety than the 
scientific acquirements of his master — has left us to draw our 
own conclusions from a knowledge that it was built of wrought 
or polished stone ; and that divers columns and porticos entered 
into its construction. William of Malmesbury also, amid the 
more elegant erections of after ages, records its curious arches, 
fine pavements, and winding recesses. Yet these particulars, 
combined with the fact that Wilfrid brought workmen from 
Italy who wrought in the Roman manner, and guided by the 
description Richard, Prior of Hexham, gives of that church, 
which was built by Wilfrid in 674, will afford us a tolerable 
idea of the celebrated monastery of Ripon. 

J Bede says that when Finan built the church of Lindisfarne, ** More Scottorum, 
non de lapide, sed de robore secto totam composuit atque arundine intexit." — Hist. 
£ccL. L. iii., c. xxiv. 



' SITE OF OLD ABBKY I 
AND THE ratSENT OATHEDRAU 




REFERENCE. 



S. nie Deuisi}' Osrdeag. 

1. 'nieBi(«or(U"01d Abber of Blptm," baandeda 

on tbs Eut br Habj'* Wkll. 

4. Tbe rappoaal aits of EU&'a Moii>Mei7. 

t. ThatltsorthgCliDTehorAllhallain. 

t. ThaiiCeofUie AnAblihopofYork'iPBUM. 

7. Tbs Bnilal ammd of tha Cathedr&l. 



THE OLD ABBAY OF RIPON. 



25 



On the completion of the structure, Archbishop Wilfrid 
dedicated it in honour of St. Peter, by a solemn and splendid 
ceremonial. The king Ecgfrid and his brother -ffilwin digni- 
fied the occasion by their presence, and were accompanied by 
a vast retinue of the Princes and Nobles of the realm. Before 
this august assembly, Wilfrid, mindful of the example of 
Solomon when about to dedicate his great temple, prayed first 
after the sublime manner of that wisest of men, that God 
might sanctify the house which he had built, and the prayers 
of the faithful for ever after offered therein. Next he dedicated 
the altar, on which he placed a cover of purple, wrought with 
gold embroidery ; and, having arranged thereon the sacramental 
vessels, admjnistered the holy Eucharist to the marvelling con- 
gregation. He then stood up before the altar, and animated the 
beneficence, and refreshed the memory of his auditory, by narrat- 
ing to them the lands which the king had previously bestowed upon 
the church ; and others which by the assent and subscription of 
the Bishops and Princes had been on that day given to it — 
reminding them, at the same time, of the churches in divers 
places that had remained desecrated since the British clergy 
had fled from them. The prelate's discourse being ended, the 
multitude went to a banquet, which, after the still lingering 
rites of paganism, lasted three days and three nights — ^the prince 
and the peasant joining together in rude and unconstrained 
hilarity and mirth. 

The lands wherewith the church was thus endowed were 
said by Eddius,* in his dubious orthography, to be situated '^juxta 
Rippel & in Gaedyne 6f in regions Dunitinga £sf in Caetlevum in 
caterisque locisJ* On this very curious passage much may be 
observed. My present purpose only allows me to remark that if 
'* Rippel " is to be understood as signifying the river Ribble in 
Lancashire, its Roman appellation of Belisarna seems by this 
time to have been forgotten. 

The church also now received from its munificent founder, a 
library of books, whose covers were adorned with gold and 
jewels 5 and a pre-eminently superb copy of the four Gospels, 

♦ Vita S. Wilfridi, c. xvii. 



26 RIPON. 

which he had caused to be written on purple vellum, in letters 
of gold, and enshrined in a refulgent casket of the same metal. 
This collection, one of the earliest, as well as one of the 
richest in the kingdom, was remaining in the abbey of Ripon 
when Eddius wrote, and is commemorated by him in terms of 
enthusiastic delight. 

The foundation of this memorable structure seems to have 
occurred between the first regnal year of King Ecgfrid, 670, and 
678, when that monarch, by the advice of his wife, persuaded 
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, to depose Wilfrid j who 
then departed to Rome to receive justice from the Pope. 
Theodore substituted two Bishops in his stead — Bosa having 
his see at York, and Eata that at Hexham or Lindisfarne. At the 
same time he ordained, at York, Eadhead, Bishop of Sidnaces- 
ter ; and three years after Wilfrid's departure, placed Trum- 
bert over the church of Hexham, and Trumwine over the 
province of the Pictsf — Eata being removed to Lindisferne. 

Still deeming that a more minute supervision was required, 
the Church of Ripon was constituted an episcopal see, and 
Eadhead, who had returned from Sidnacester, was appointed 
its Bishop. J 

Wilfrid at length returned from Rome, with a record of the 
Pope's judgment in his favour ; but it was not until Ecgfrid and 
Theodore were in their graves that he could avail himself of 
its reasonable provisions. Aldfrid, who succeed to the throne, 
was moved to recall Wilfrid, about the year 687, to his 
monastery and possessions at Hexham; and for a while, accord- 
ing to the Papal decree, to his see of York and monastery of 
Ripon. • 

After several years, chequered by alternate periods of enmity 
and friendship, the disinclination of Wilfrid to the change of this 
his monastery of St. Peter into an episcopal see, and his 
attempts to recover the territories and lands of which it had 
been divested, were so represented by his enemies to the King, 

f Bedae Hist. Eccl., 1. iv., c. 129 WhdoCy 291. 

I Ibid. — " Rhipensi ecclesiae praefecit," Ibid. 1. iii., c. 28, *< Hrypcnsis ecclesiae 
praesul foetus est." 



THE OLD ABBAY OF RIPON. 27 

that he was compelled to leave the realm. At a Synod, that 
was held soon after in Northumbria, he was oflFered the posses- 
sion of his favourite monastery of Ripon, on condition that he 
should not pass beyond its limits. With this insufficient oflFer 
he was justly dissatisfied, and appealed once more, to demand 
redress from the supreme Pontiff at Rome. 

But the thunder of the Vatican rolled away unheeded over 
the stern Aldfrid's head, until irremediable disease subdued his 
passions and awakened his fears. He then charged Berecfrid, the 
guardian of his infant son Osred, to render justice to Wilfrid, 
and expired. 

When the haven of peace seemed thus won at last, still 
another storm arose. Eadwulf, an adventurous noble, intruded 
himself on the throne of Northumbria ; and when Wilfrid^ after 
his long exile, sought a peaceful retirement at Ripon, the usur- 
per drove him rudely away, and threatened to slay such of his 
attendants as dared to remain here, after the expiration of six 
days. Two months, however, established the guardian's 
delegated authority ; and in the first year of Osred's reign, he 
joined Berthwald, Archbishop of Canterbury in holding a Synod, 
which should bring about a final pacification. The assembly 
met not far from the river Nidd, and, as I imagine, in or near 
the villagefthat still bears that name; when, after much consulta- 
tion, it was agreed that Wilfrid should be restored to the enjoy- 
ment of his ever-cherished monasteries of Ripon and Hexham, 
with all their appurtenant possessions. 

Sixty years of warfare and vicissitude sweetened the brief rest 
that was now allotted him on earth. At length he declared 
his will touching the disposition of his estate ; and nominated 
Tatberht, his kinsman, to succeed in the abbacy of Ripon, 
where he then sojourned. On departing hence, soon after, he 
was taken ill at the abbey of Oundle, in Northamptonshire ; 
and on the I2th of Oct., 711, in the 76th year of his age, felt 
his hour had come. Having then bestowed his benediction on 
those that stood around him, " even as Jacob blessed his sons," 
he turned his head calmly to the pillow, and so, without a mur- 
mur or a groan, passed away from this troublous scen^. The 



28 RIPON. 

monks that were singing day and night in the adjacent choir, 
had repeated at the moment the 31st verse of the 103rd Psalm ; 
while they who witnessed the solemn scene deemed, in the 
excited distraction of their hearts, that they heard the approach- 
ing sound of viewless wings that should bear that great spirit 
home. 

According to his own particular request his body was con- 
veyed to Ripon for interment. All the members of the mon- 
astery went out, bearing their holy relics, to receive the mourn- 
ing procession 5 and, joining them in the Psalms they were 
singing, thus conducted the venerated remains to the church, 
where they were deposited on the south side of the altar. 

Of this most extraordinary man, this is not the place or the 
occasion further to speak ; and I know not whither to refer the 
curious enquirer for a minute and elaborate biography of one, 
who deserves that pious care more than any character of the 
Anglo-Saxon period. Interesting memoirs have, indeed, ap- 
peared from several most able pens ; but, more with reference 
to the importance of his position in controverted theological 
enquiries and in the history of ancient science, than in general, 
comprehensive and philosophical detail. For this, it is for- 
tunate for us that the remembrance of Bede and the piety of 
Eddius have preserved an original and solid foundation. In the 
heated atmosphere of religious controversy, the pure spirit of 
christian charity has frequently evaporated, and left his name 
tarnished with imputations of avarice, and arrogance, and pride. 
Without questioning how far the original and contemporary 
sources of information warrant those aspersions ; or enquiring 
how justly his injudicious efforts to augment and maintain the 
welfare and authority of the temporal church, have been mis- 
represented ; or, the intentions of a mind anxious to introduce 
to a rude and unappreciating people the elegant arts and refine- 
ments he had acquired in foreign lands, have been slandered and 
condemned ; I would remark, that they who dilate on the in- 
decorous splendour of his mansions, and the number of his 
attendants, forgot that from thence he often went out barefoot, 
to teach poor and indigent men, and left his services of sump- 



THE OLD ABBAY OF RIPON. 



29 



tuous plate, to practice the most rigid austerities, and to partake 
of the humblest fare: that thence, the priceless fountain of 
literature flowed to refresh a weary and thirsty land ; and that 
there daily issued from those attendants, the artists and 
artisans of works we are even yet anxious to behold. That after 
it is maliciously recounted how indignantly he crossed the 
seas to maintain the just authority, of which the violence of 
envious and turbulent men would have divested him, it is but 
meagrely told to us how often and meekly he journeyed to 
diflFuse the Grospel among the remnant of our unchristianized 
population. And, above all, I would more willingly commem- 
orate the untiring devotion, the unflinching resolution, the 
daring enthusiasm with which this ardent soul pressed forward 
— through trials and temptations, and discouragements, that 
we cannot now understand, and difiiculties, and dangers, and 
oppressions that are now forgotten— to propagate, in a dark 
and gloomy and perilous age, that creed and faith, which, — 
though we may deem it to be vested in the guise of the world, and 
obscured by the errors of men — ^was, to his intent and belief 
and hope and purpose, the everlasting word of God. 

Nothing memorable is recorded of those who succeeded 
Wilfrid in the abbacy of Ripon. If Tylbert, mentioned by 
Eadmer in his " Vita Oswaldi^^ be synonymous with Tatberht, 
whom Eddius says the prelate appointed, it would appear he 
enjoyed that dignity, though in contravention of the strict Bene- 
dictine rule. His successor, " the venerable Botwine," died 
in the midst of his sorrowing brethren in 785 or 6 ; when 
Alberht was chosen, who, after the brief rule of one year, 
resigned the ofiice with his life. After him came Sigred ; and 
then Wilgend, with whom this brief list must end. 

Near the outer gates of this monastery, in 792, Eardulf, a 
Northumbrian noble, was stabbed by the command, or, as some 
say, by the hand of Ethelred his king. The monks, compas- 
sionating his fate, bore him with solemn dirges to the church, 
and placed his body in the porch. The murderous weapon 
had missed its deadly aim ; and, after midnight, the monks had 
the gratification to discover the intended victim alive in their 



30 



RIPON. 



Yair have pees for les and mare 
Ilkan of yis stedes sal have pees. 
Of Frodmortel and ils deeds 
Yat yair don is, &c. 



church. After four years spent, as some affirm, in concealment 
in this monastery, he ascended the throne of Northumbria. 

King Athelstane, as I have previously observed, granted cer- 
tain valuable immunities to the monastery of Ripon ; the par- 
ticulars of which are defined in two charters of that monarch, 
printed by Dodsworth and Dugdale in their Monasticon, I 
presume, however, that both these documents were fabrications 
of much later days,* and framed more in the nature of an in- 
speximus, than that of an original grant, particularly the one in 
prose, which is witnessed by " G,*' or Geoffrey, Archbishop of 
York, and natural son of King Henry II. f By the rhyming 
charter, which is a curious specimen of English verse, as writ- 
ten at the end of the thirteenth century, the valuable privilege 
of sanctuary was conceded to the church. 

Oa ilke side the kyrke a mile 
For all ill deedes and ylke agyle, 
And within yair kyrke yate, 
At ye Stan yat grithstole hate, 
Within ye kirke dore and ya quare 

Together with the ordeal of fire and water ; freedom from tax 
and tribute ; and other immunities. 

The boundary of this place of refuge, commensurate with 
the " Leuga S. Wilfridi'* of Domesday, was mai-ked, at the 
end of the thirteenth century, by eight crosses surrounding 
the church, and called mile crosses ; where, at the latter period, 
the Archbishop of York claimed that his bailiffs had the right 
to meet the homicide, who should flee thither ; and, after ad- 
ministering to him the necessary oath, to admit him within the 
privileged jurisdiction. The position of three only are now 
distinguished. Athelstane's cross was situate on the road 
between Ripon and Nunwick, by a field still called Athelstane- 
close. The stump of Archangel cross was lately sunk in the 
hedge of a lane leading from the Navigation bridge to Bond- 
gate ; and Sharow cross still remains entire in the highway from 
Ripon to that village, in a pleasant and shady nook, where the 

• Mon. Ang. i., 172. 

•j- In the " Remains concerning Britain," p. 198, it is observed, this Bishop Geoffrey, 
in all his instruments passing from him, used the style of " G. archiepiscopus Ebonim." 



THE OLD ABBAY OF RJPON. 31 

eye may be still further gratified by a charming prospect of the 
majestic river winding at the foot of a gentle declivity ; and the 
city and cathedral rising imposingly from the wooded copses 
beyond. Another nameless cross formerly stood oh the "ftirlher 
side of Bishopton toll-gate ; but whether one of this series I 
cannot at present ascertain. The girthstool that stood in the 
church, and conferred the last degree of security on its occu- 
pant, is now destroyed, and I am unable to say in what part of 
the choir it stood. 

This peculiar franchise was sought even after the several 
statutes of King Henry VIII. had curtailed its benefits -, for I 
have seen it notified in some Chancery proceedings, in 1539, 
that, after the abduction of the plaintifPs wife, and the robbery 
of his plate, the culprit had fled to the then insufficient sanctu- 
ary at Ripon. 

The monastery had no sooner received these valuable im- 
munities than it was doomed to irretrievable destruction ; for in 
948-50, when king Edred devasted the North, in punishment of 
the perfidious people, it was utterly destroyed by fire, and 
rendered no longer tenable. 



32 RIPON. 



"THE CHAPELLE OF OUR LADY. 



»» 



Yet the ruin of the "Old Abbay of Ripon" was not entirely 
abandoned to desolation. A chapel was founded there, no 
doubt, within the walls of some portion that was left undis- 
turbed — for the ravages of Edred could scarcely have extended 
to the shell of the building — ^and Leland has left us the follow- 
ing circumstantial account of what otherwise would have perish- 
ed irretrievably. 

" The old abbay of Ripon," says he, '* stode where now is 
a chapelle of our Lady, in a botom one close distant by • . . . 
from the new minstre. 

" One Marmaduke, abbate of Fountaines, a man femiliar 
with Salvage, archebishop of York (1501-7), obteined this 
chapelle of hym and prebendaries of Ripon ; and, having it 
gyven onto hym and to his zhhzyj pulled down the est end of itj 
a pece of exceding auncient wark^ and buildid a fair pece of new 
werk with squarid stones for it, leving the west ende of very old 
werk standing. 

" He began also and finished a very fair high waul of 
squarid ston at the est end of the garth that this chapel 
stondeth yn : and had thought to have inclosyd the hole garth with 
a lyke waulle^ and to have made there a cell of white monks. 
There lyethe one of the Englebys in the este end of this chapell, 
and here lyith another of them yn the chapelle garthe, and in 
the chapel singith a cantuarie prest. 

" One thing I much notid, that was, 3 crossis standing in 
row at the este ende of the chapelle garth. ^hey were 
things antiquissimi operis^ and monumentes of some notable men 
buried there, so that of al the old monasterie of Ripon and the 
toun I saw no likely tokens left after the depopulation of the 



THE CHAPBLLE OF OUR LADT. 33 

Danes in that place, but only the waulUs of our Lady chapelU 
and thecrossis.** 

From returns made at the time of the Reformation it would 
appear that the " Cantuarie" was the otXy foundation connected 
with "the Chapelle called the Lady Church in Stammergate." 
It was founded Feb. 15th, 1392, by John Clint and Robert 
Durham, priests, "to the intent to pray for the sowles of the 
founders and all X'pen sowles, and to say masse and other 
suffrages in the sayde chapel or church contynuallye." It is also 
added in the certificate that " the necessitie is to say masse in the 
said chapell, and to pray for the sowles of the founders, and in 
tyme of plage for the savegard of the parochiens to here masse in 
the same.** 

The indefatigable antiquary was no doubt correct in his 
supposition ; and little did he imagine, as he viewed the vener- 
able remains, which would have thrown a most vivid light on the 
interesting subject of Saxon architecture, could we now sec 
them as he did, that in a few years, the " fair pece of new 
werk, and the pece of exceding auncient wark,'* would be in- 
volved in one common ruin. The foundation having been 
suppressed in 1547, the fabric became, no doubt, a quarry for 
all who were wicked enough to remove " the remnants of the 
shattered pile ;'* though, I am afraid, the hands of false friends 
contributed not a little to its demolition. There is now no- 
thing above ground to mark the site. Abbot Huby's wall, 
which merits Leland's encomium of a fair piece of work, re- 
mains, enclosing the '* chapelle garth," which forms part of 
the Deanery garden and paddock. I have reason to believe the 
foundations and outline of the Saxon monastery might still be 
traced, and such an operation on a building, whose pre-eminent 
antiquity is so well ascertained, could not fail to be deeply 
interesting. A few small and curious tesserae of the floor 
were discovered on this site in 1837. A more interesting relic 
was dug up on the high road adjacent to the old religious house 
a few years ago. It is a fragment of a sepulchral cross, bear- 
ing a portion of an inscription which it is not easy to decypher. 
It is now in the possession of Mr. H. Sharpin, of Ripon. 



1 



34 



RIPON. 



Lcland, referring to a site about two hundred yzrds north 
west of the Monastery, says "there hath bene, about the 
north part of the olde towne, a paroch church of the name of 
Alhallows.'* There neither is, nor is remembered to have been 
the trace of such a building on Allhallowgate Hill ^ but in using 
the ground as a gravel pit the skeletons of many bodies, which 
have received Christian burial, have been discovered -, and on 
the breast of one of them an iron cross, evidently fabricated at 
a very early period. 



■^- 



■MuMnMM 



W0tm^m 



•wJL. 



KIPON CATHEDRAt. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 35 




THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF ST. PEJER 

AND ST. WILFRID. 



OT long after the destruction of Wilfrid's 
monastery, Leland informs us it was '*the com* 
mune opinion" in his day, that '' Odo, Arch- 
bishop of Cantewarbyri, (Canterbury) cumming 
ynto the Northe partes with King......(Edred?) 

had pitie on the desolation of Ripon chirch, and began, 
or causid a new work to be edified wher the* Minstre now 
is J " but that no part of this structure then remained. 
Odo himself, in his preface to Frithgod's Metrical Life of 
Wilfrid, also informs us that, on visiting the old Monastery, 
he found the grave of Wilfrid in a state of scandalous and in- 
decent neglect ; and removed his bones to a proper receptacle 
in his metropolitan church. This statement has, nevertheless, 
been questioned. 

In consequence of the Danish ravages in 995, Aldune, Bishop 
of Chester-le-street, attended by his clergy, fled to Ripon in 
the Spring of that year, bringing with them the body of St. 
Cuthbert, " and the various treasures with which it and they had 
been enriched." After sojourning here three or four months they 
returned to the North, and settled, by the direction of a miracle 
as they pretended, on a well fortified site, where soon arose the 
first cathedral church of Durham. 

There is no evidence to show that the restored church of 
Ripon was handed over to any order of monks. If they had the 
charge of it, they did not retain it long. Between 1060 and 
J 069 Aldred, archbishop of York, and lord of this manor, had 
founded certain prebends in the church, either in addition to 



36 RIPON. 

a previous number, or as an original endowment and foundation, 
and these canons of St. Wilfrid were in the enjoyment of their 
privileges when the Domesday survey was made. In 1106 
Osbert, sheriff of Yorkshire, endeavoured to disturb their fran- 
chise ; but Gerard, the archbishop, reported the circumstance 
to the king, who issued a commission to enquire into their 
validity, which was subsequently confirmed. 

In the beginning of the century succeeding the Norman Con- 
quest, Archbishop Thurstan gave to the " church of St. Wilfrid " 
one carucateof land, "in dedicatione," and also two oxgangs of 
land in Sharow, for the foundation of a prebend that has since 
borne that name. An erroneous interpretation of the intent of 
the former donation has induced the general statement, most 
prominently developed in the seventeenth volume of the 
Archaeologia, that Thurstan built the Collegiate Church of 
Ripon ; and that, except the additions and alterations in the 
Decorated and Perpendicular style, it remains a monument of 
his genius and liberality to this day. 

This noble work, I have, however, had the pleasure to as- 
certain, is another of the many benefits which the see of York 
derived fi*om the Pontificate of the wealthy and talented Roger 
of Pont V Eveque, who held it from 1 154 to 1181 ; for the 
chroniclers have recorded comparatively nothing of one whose 
generosity and piety, in raising the ancient choir of York 
Cathedral, and the adjacent collegiate chapel of St. Sepulchre, 
will now acquire, at the distance of nearly seven centuries, the 
honour of another most important work. It was fortunate, 
therefore, that in this instance he has not suffered from their 
neglect ; for in a record which he caused to be prepared, he has 
himself notified — " quod dedimus operi beati Wilfridi de Ripon 
ad aedificandam basilicam ipsius quam de novo inchoavimus mille 
libras veteris monetae." With this treasure* a noble pile was 
begun, as is still evident in those members of it which remain in 
the transepts, and north-west portions of the choir. 

* This was not the whole of the Archbishop's bene^cdon, for it appears from a 
charter s. d., that the charter gave to Ra^h the Smith, for his service, one toft near 
the gate of the cemetery towards the west^ which Roger the Archbishop gave to the 
works of the church. 



THB CATHEDRAL, 37 

We are not informed how much of the structure was per- 
fected before the Archbishop's decease, though the state of the 
nave at that period seems only doubtful. After the plan, 
originally devised by Roger, was completed, the elegant taste 
and ample resources of some benefector (probably Archbishop 
Walter Gray,) dissatisfied with the tall nave, terminating 
abruptly without aisles on the west, renewed that front in the 
lancet style, and produced a noble and imposing facade, by the 
addition of a tower on each side, adorned with lofty spires of 
timber and lead. The centre tower had, perhaps, been 
originally adorned by a similar termination, though of much 
less altitude. 

About fifty years had probably elapsed since the completion 
of the church, when an important alteration was projected in 
it ; and on the 15th of February, 1288, ArcKbishop Romaine 
granted an indulgence of forty days to such persons as should 
contribute to the wprk. As the language of this class of documents 
is generally exaggerated, its report that the church was " ruinosa 
et reparatione indigjet " must be received with caution j the 
probability being greater that the archbishop and the canons 
longed for an opportunity of reconstructing the eastern portion 
of the choir, in that glorious style which was then in its first 
development from the Early English. That this was the portion 
of the fabric operated upon is evident enough from the work 
itself; but a mandate from the archbishop and the chapter in 
1297, to pay the debt they had incurred by the erecting of their 
new chancel, shows also that their zeal had exceeded their 
means. It is probable too that they had some difficulty in 
acceding to the archbishop's demands, for on the 17th of June, 
1300, another indulgence was granted on behalf of the church. 

Thus efficiently completed, the church remained in beauty 
and strength until the inroad of the Scots, in 13 19, when they 
set fire to the building, and destroyed some of its inmates. 

At this time William de Melton, who had endeavoured to 
repulse the Scots, held the archiepiscopal staff with a firm and 
apostolic hand. His generosity and efficient patronage of 
architectural science confirm the statement that he applied 



38 



RIPON. 



himself to the reparation of the misfortune, and the eastern 
portion of the choir is pointed to as his work. 

Though the injuries caused by the Scots had not probably 
extended beyond the roofe, screens, stalls, and other^inflamm- 
able portions of the building, the work of renovation and 
amplification proceeded slowly. We do not learn how the 
valiant Archbishop Zouch, who resided awhile at his palace here, 
encouraged his canons in the undertaking j but immediately 
after the appointment of the great Thoresby to the archiepis- 
copal chair, he issued, 26th October, 1354, his letters of 
request to Thomas Button and others, to collect the charitable 
alms of all faithful and well disposed persons within the diocese 
of York, to the use of the fabric of this church, and, with the 
money thus obtained, the work was no doubt completed. 

A century had but just elapsed before the canons were again 
called upon to repel the attacks of an enemy more insidious and 
irresistible than the violence of man. The lantern tower, 
" which at first was so sumptuously built, was then, as well by 
neglect of workmen that first made it, as by thunder, and 
frequent storms and tempests, so much shaken and broken that 
the greatest part thereof was already fallen, and the rest expected 
to follow, if no speedy remedy was applied." The fabric fund 
being unable to meet the emergency, William Booth, archbishop 
of York, was moved, on the 4th of February, 1459, 37 Henry 
VL, to grant an indulgence of forty days to all such as should 
afford their charitable relief towards the re-edification, con- 
struction, and sustentation of the said steeple. 

The rebuilding of the steeple was not fully accomplished. The 
south and east sides, which called for immediate restoration, were 
rebuilt after a noble and elegant design j and a preparation, that 
now disfigures the interior of the nave, denotes that the rest 
was intended to be removed ; but the east wall of the transept, 
and the southern portion of the choir contiguous to the vitiated 
angle of the tower, seem to have demanded such immediate 
attention, that I presume it was deemed more advisable to expend 
the funds in their reconstruction, than in the completion of the 
tower. The arms of the see of York, Fountains Abbey, the 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



39 



families of Pigot of Clotherholme, and Norton of Norton, that 
adorned the late wooden ceiling of the south transept, showed 
who were the chief contributors to this work. The masses of 
masonry that had been projected from the tower, had, it is 
probable, so mutilated the rood-screen and the wooden lattices 
of the choir, with their contiguous stalls, that a new series of 
stalls was begun in 1489, and completed in 1494, about wl^ich 
period the rood-screen and sedilia were erected. The Lady-loft 
likewise was built before 1482. 

Having thus vigorously '' set their hand to the plough," our 
canons proceeded with that enthusiasm and lofty unity of pur- 
pose that actuated, so triumphantly, the architectural works of 
those earlier days, and next turned their attention to the ruined 
condition of the nave. Its monotonous length, inaccordant 
with the aisled ampHtude of the rest of the structure, probably 
suggested its removal, rather than its restoration ; and it must 
be allowed that he who was selected to prepare the new design, 
wrought with no ordinary or unskilftil hand. 

The precise time when the work was commenced is at present 
unknown. The arms of Pigot of Clotherholme, in conjunction 
with those of the town, on the lower portion of one of the 
pillars, have been supposed to indicate that this part was erected 
while Randolph Pigot was wakeman, in 147 1 ; but this is 
doubtftil authority. A local chronicle, written in 1615, sa3rs 
that, '* on the 6th day of Februarie, 1502, did the Chapter of 
the Church of Rippon make ordinances & statutes for the re- 
paire ic re-edifiing of the same being at that tyme in great d^caye 
far ruine ; " and the arms of Savage, archbishop of York, and 
those of his successor, Bainbridge, as a Cardinal, are good 
evidence that an interval of at least nine years elapsed before 
its completion. Leland, who was at Ripon about 1534, observed 
" the body of the church of late dayes^ made of a great widnesse 
by the treasour of the church and the gentilmen of the 
cuntery." 

On the 1st of October, 1537, Archbishop Lee sequestered 
certain revenues of the church for the purpose of repairing the 
chapter house, which was represented to be in a very ruinous 



40 



RIPON. 



condition. It may be doubted, however, whether the work was 
commenced, unless it is now represented by the subsidiary 
masonry which supports the vaulting of the Norman crypt 
below. 

Even when an unprophetic eye might note the surging clouds 
of an impending and most fearful reformation, the Chapter once 
more met under the presidency of the rich and learned Bradley, 
late abbat of Fountains, and suffragan bishop of Hull,' to 
deliberate on the rei>ovation of a pile in which they could not 
reasonably predict that their imposing rites and ceremonies could 
be celebrated long. On Sunday the 31st of October, 1546, 
they set apart a certain portion of their revenue to repair the 
belltower and wall of the north aisle,* which threatened to fall;, 
but before their plan could be brought into operation, the 
structure had passed into ruthless and unfriendly hands. 

It is foreign to my purpose to enumerate the property where- 
with the Church was endowed at its dissolution in 1 547 ; and 
that is the less necessary, since a detailed account of the revenue 
of the fabric, and of its several members, is afforded in the 
return made to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1535 ; and 
published in the " Valor Ecclesiasticus." The establishment 
at this latter period consisting of seven secular canons, each 
stall having a vicar choral annexed, excepting that of Stanwick ; 
three deacons \ three subdecons ; and nine cantarists ; six 
thuribulers and sub-thuribulers \ six choristers ; a seneschal ; 
registrar; sacristan ; and several inferior officers. 

The prebends were severally named after the place where 
the chief portion of their tithes and rents was derived. " Thorpe 
and Haddocstones," '' Nunwick and Sutton," " Stanwick," 
" Skelton and Givendale," Monkton Episcopi, Sharow, and 
Studley. That of Stanwick was more modern than the rest, 
but it was the '' golden prebend." It was endowed with very 
considerable tithes in that parish, by Archbishop Walter Gray, 



♦ This must apply to the choir, the nave being but just rebuilt. The words of the 
act of Chapter are << Sunt nonnulli delectus et ruinositates aperts tarn campanilis quam 
muri lapid'is insulae borealis ejusd*m eccrie qui irrumpuntV,** ice. Yet the choir 
exhibits no particular work of that date, and is still in no danger. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 4I 

13 November, 1230, who had deprived the Convent of Easby 
thereof, in consequence of that very extraordinary and scanda- 
lous outrage, vvrhich is detailed by Dr. Whitaker in his Rich- 
mondshire, from the chartulary of that house. It is remarkable, 
however, that this important sequel of the story is suppressed, 
and the great historian was not otherwise or further informed 
on the subject. The Prebendary of Stan wick was perpetual 
Rector of the choir j and that of Monkton Treasurer of the 
Collegiate Church. Archbishops Greenfield, Bowet, and Geo. 
Neville dignified these stalls, prior to their advancement to the 
mitre 5 and here also Bubwith, Sherwood, and Legh developed 
their memorable talents, before their succession to the several 
Sees of London, Durham, and Litchfield. The celebrated 
Peter de Blois was a Canon of Ripon. 

The precise position of all the Chantry Chapels in the Church 
has not yet been ascertained ; nor the time when each was 
founded discovered. Those of St. James, St Thomas, and St. 
Wilfrid are dubious in both particulars. David de WoUore, 
Canon of Ripon and Master of St. John's Hospital here, founded 
a chantry in the north transept, at the altar of St. Andrew, 
29th March, 1369. John de Sherwood founded a chantry at the 
altar of St. John the Evangelist, 20th February, 1364. That 
of the Holy Trinity, above the " High Altar," was of the 
foundation of Sir William Plumpton, of Plumpton, Knt., in 
1345 ; and that of the Trinity below the altar, or in the crypt, 
of the foundation of John Sendal, a canon of the church, who 
ordained many pious and prudent regulations for its prosperity, 
which were confirmed by Archbishop Neville in the time of 
Edward IV. The chantry of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Mary was constituted by John Fulthorpe ; and that " in Lady 
Loft " to which no other name is assigned in the Valor of 
1535, was, I presume with much hesitation, of the foundation 
of John RadclyfFe and Bryan Batty, of Hewick, who as it is 
recited in a deed in 1520, were '' stirred to have one perpetual 
priest to say mass in y« chapel or loft of St. George^ This 
cantarist was enjoined daily to say " placebo, dirige, and 
commendacion," for certain souls, and on ** all feasts, double 



42 



RIPON. 



feasts, Sundays, and holly days, should be in the chore, of the 
sd coll. at matyns, mass, and evynsong, and to be at all the 
processions of the same, ande to have one abbit after suche 
fourme as the roode preists within the saide churche hath, with 
Saynt George on horsbacke uppon the brest of the said abbit 
embrowdered." Gent says the chantry of St. James was 
founded by Wm. Cawood, a canon of Ripon, and John Dene, 
prebendary of Stanwick. The curious will of this former 
person, who was an eminent diplomatist, dated 3rd February, 
1 41 9, has been published by the Surtees Society j and discloses 
the interesting; fact that his books were to be sold to aid the 
erection of the altar screen of York Minster. He bequeathed 
a copy of Cassiodorus super Psalterium to the Church, for 
the use of its ministers, desiring that it might be chained 
before the prebendal stalls of Thorpe and Stanewyge, for 
ever. John de Dene died in 1435. 

Among the several sources whence the fabric fund was 
derived, not the least profitable then, and worthy of investigation 
now, was that contributed by pilgrims to the Shrine of St. 
Wilfrid, whose sepulture in this church seems to have been 
hitherto absolutely forgotten. During the recent restoration of 
the chancel some fragments of sculpture, which seemingly were 
portions of a shrine, were discovered beneath the pavement, on 
the south side of the high altar. Wilfrid's shrine may have 
stood there, although the very fact of the saint's resting here at 
all has been denied. Archbishop Odo, of Canterbury, in his 
preface to Frithgode's metrical life of Wilfrid, states, or 
is made to state, that he removed him from Ripon to his 
Cathedral Church ; where it has been ever subsequently affirmed 
that he was enshrined on the north side of the St. Thomas' 
Chapel, near Becket's Crown, and under the monument of 
Cardinal Pole. This was denied at an early period by those 
who favoured the pretensions of the see of York, in the ancient 
controversy as to the Primacy of all England, on the ground 
that it was Archbishop Wilfrid the Second that was removed. 
Leland quotes a Chronicle, that gives Dunstan, the arch fiend's 
opponent, the honour of translating Wilfrid ; but he elsewhere 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



43 



States that he rested at Ripon, together with St. Acca and St. 
Egelsi, Bishops, St. Egbert and St. Ythburga. St. Acca, however, 
we know was interred in his own church at Hexham. It is to be 
objected, also, on the part of Ripon, that John, Prior of Hexham, 
in narrating the violent entry of Alan, earl of Richmond, into 
Ripon Minster in 1144, particularly remarks that he insulted 
Archbishop William " secus corpus beati Wilfridi ; " though 
this again is discordant with the record of Eadmer, who, in his 
Life of St. Oswald, the Archbishop of York, recounts with 
much minuteness, his translation by that prelate, to his own 
church, in consequence of the disgraceful state of that of Ripon. 
If, however, this latter statement is, as it seems to be, of authority, 
the truth of this long contested history is now discovered ; for I 
possess the transcript of a certificate of Archbishop Walter 
Grey, dated at Otley, 21st January, 1224, wherein, believing in 
the ancient removal by Oswald he records that, at the request of 
the Canons of Ripon, he had translated him to their Church, 
no portion of his bones, either great or small, being as he belie- 
ved deficient ; and furthermore had caused the head to be 
exposed and left uncovered to strengthen the faith and increase 
the devotion of the beholders — each of whom, on penitentiary 
confession of his sins, was to have a relaxation of thirty days, 
counting from the day of the translation. In what part of the 
old choir the Canons provided a receptacle for the remains of 
their great patron may be for ever unknown ; yet, that it was 
notorious that he rested here is evident, if only from King Henry 
the fifth's grant to the Vicars Choral of Ripon, which he says 
he made for the love arid affection that he bore to the memory 
of St. Wilfrid, who lay buried in their church ; and that his 
tomb or shrine was resorted to, is demonstrated by the entry of 
" Oblac' ad rubiam sistam ad pedes Sc'i Wilfridi," in all the 
long series of fabric rolls to the time of the Dissolution — a passage 
which I cannot otherwise explain. 

This was not the only forgotten means by which the Canons 
were enabled to gratify their architectural inclinations. They 
possessed an instrument called-*' Saynt Wilfryde Birnyno 
Iron," by the scarifications of which, such sanatory influence was 



44 



RIPON. 



supposed to be conveyed to the deluded patient, that the profits 
of its application contributed 5/. l6s, y^d. to the fabric fund in 
151 1 : though that faith, now developed in a more Esculapian 
manner, had so far diminished as to afford only 26s. 8d. in 1535. 
There could be produced also a stone, known by the name of the 
'^PoKSTONE OF St. WiLFRiD," whose revenue is not indicated 
in the ''Valor Ecclesiasticus," where, indeed, many more impor- 
tant particulars respecting the church have been suppressed. 
But my limits would foil me if I attempted to dilate on all the 
dark mysteries that have been practised within these grey old 
walls : I have only to hope that I may be enabled to treat on 
them at length in another and more comprehensive work. 
Though such enquiries may appear to some but trifling, it will 
not be altogether in vain to shew how diversely and cunningly 
superstition wove her darkling web over our ancient population ; 
or, to indicate, in the exhibition of its declining revenue, how 
grateful was the dawning ray of the Reformation, and how 
swiftly the cloud, that seemed afar off " no bigger than a man's 
hand," swept up from the horizon to envelope the ancient system 
in its shadow for ever. 

After the dissolution of the Collegiate Churches, with their 
Chantries, by virtue of the statue of i Edward VI., their pos- 
sessions were leased out by the Crown, and but the pittance of 
a few pounds reserved to the minister who was appointed to 
conduct the parochial services. Archbishop Sandys, aided by 
the influence of the great Burghley, and the Lords Huntingdon 
and SbeiHeld, endeavoured to obtain from Queen Elizabeth an 
endowment equal at least to the dignity of an extensive and 
populous parish ; but " they never obtained anything but fair, 
unperformed promises." 

In the awful state of spiritual destitution which then prevailed, 
not only here, but generally in the North, the establishment of 
" An Ecclesiastical College " at Ripon, was proposed in 1596, 
— as well to supply the parochial cure of souls, as to maintain 
the Protestant faith by the creation of a learned and intelligent 
ministry. The list of patrons contained the names of many 
persons of rank and learning, including Dean Nowell and 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



45 



Hooker, and improvable funds were provided ; yet neither 
then, nor in 1604, when the burgesses influenced Anne of 
Denmark in its favour, could the project be carried into effect, 
although there is evidence that the building was in a state of 
preparation, and other arrangements made for the reception of 
students. 

The necessity of the case, however, was so far locally recog- 
nised, that on the 2nd of August, 1604, King James constituted 
the late dissolved Collegiate Church of Secular Canons a Colle- 
giate Church, to consist of a Dean and six Prebendaries for ever, 
and granted to them many of the ample sources of revenue 
which the old foundation had received from the piety and charity 
of numerous benefactors. In consequence of arrangements 
which need not be detailed, the Dean and Chapter surrendered 
the said revenues by deed enrolled 8th of June, 1608; to the 
King, who, by charter dated the same day, constituted the office 
of Sub-dean, and granted to them, with their ancient Canon 
Fee Court and many other privileges, the source of revenue 
they have since enjoyed. 

The architectural history of the structure since the Reform- 
ation may be briefly narrated. Alderman Theakstone's MS. 
Chronicle, written in 16 15, says, on the 5th of May, 1593, 
" was the greate speare of Sainct Wilfray steeple in Rippon sett 
on fire by lighteninge about thre of the clocke in the morning, 
and by God's ayde, & helpe of the towne's men, it was quin- 
ched before seaven of the clocke in ye morninge." From 
intentions more commendable for their reverence for antiquity, 
than prudence for the safety of the fabric, the shattered " speare" 
was allowed to remain until the 8th of December, 1660, when, 
" by reason of a violent storm of winde, the great steeple (by 
which the brief I quote designates the spire), was blown down," 
and demolished the roof of the chancel, " which was the only 
part where the people could assemble for the duties of public 
worship." "The body, like wise,, of the said church, which 
was before very ruinous, being by the fall of the said steeple 
sorely shaken and much wealotned, insomuch as the charge for 
the more necessary repair of the said church, without rebuilding 



46 



RIPON. 



the steeple," was supposed to amount to 6000/., the inhabitants 
obtained the king's letters patent, enabling the Mayor of Ripon, 
with the Dean and other Commissioners, to receive the con- 
tributions of those who should wish to contribute to the good 
work — pertinently reminding them that " the Lord loveth the 
gates of Sion more than all the dwellings of Jacob." 

The people responded liberally to the royal exhortation j but 
in consequence of the embezzlement of a great portion of the 
contributions, little more was accomplished than the imperative 
restoration of the choir roof, and the woodwork it had crushed 
in its descent. In 1664 the spires of the western towers were 
removed to obviate the recurrence of another catastrophe. 

From this period, though the Chapter paid all the attention 
which their funds would allow to the immediate requirements of 
the fabric, the hand of time was eiFectually performing its 
insidious and lamentable work, until the accession of Dr. 
Webber to the Deanery, in 1829, when it was found that 
serious and most extensive renovation was required in all portions 
of the building. Mr. Blore having reported that 3096/. would 
be required to effect an efficient and substantial repair, and 
2785/. more '' to give the interior a uniform and consistent 
character," the Chapter, according to ancient precedent, pub- 
licly stated the urgency of the case to their parishioners and 
friends, who provided funds which ultimately amounted to 
upwards of 3000/. 

A new roof and ceiling was now bestowed on the nave, and 
its clerestory lights were repaired. The choir was groined, its 
windows re-glazed and repaired, a new altar-screen was erected, 
and some minor operations effected in the choir. 

All the restorations that have been hitherto mentioned were 
more or less partial and incomplete. The poverty of the Chapter 
and district rendered it impossible to do full justice to the many 
and urgent requirements of this venerable decaying structure. 
The evil day was only deferred. In 1861 a most vigorous, and 
happily successful, attempt was made to compensate for the 
deficiencies of bygone years, and*, after years of labour, and a 
vast outlay, the minster now presents an appearance such as it 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



47 



has never exhibited before. The movement w^as originated by 
the late Dean Goode, vv^ho availed himself of the invaluable 
services of Mr. George Gilbert Scott. The renovations carried 
out by Mr.- Scott extend to nearly the whole of the minster. 
We shall briefly enumerate the most important of them. 

The western towers, which were cracked from the top to 
the bottom, have been thoroughly repaired, the foundations have 
been renewed, and the walls and windows restor-ed to their 
original condition. The portals likewise, which were in great 
decay, have been properly and safely renovated. 

The external roof of the choir has been raised to its original 
elevation. An entirely new roof has been constructed of solid 
oak, in place of that of plaster which existed before, many parts 
of which were found to be in a state of dangerous decay. This 
roof has been covered with lead. The roofs of the north and 
south aisles of the choir have been thoroughly repaired, and 
their interior surface has been cleared of the coats of white- 
wash which entirely concealed the fine stone vaulting. The 
windows on the south side, which had been bricked up, have 
been re-opened, and proper muUions inserted. 

Extensive repairs have been made on the outer walls of the 
Cathedral, extending from the south transept, along the south 
side towards the east end ; the whole of the east end ; and the 
north side as far as the north transept. The soil, which had 
accumulated to a considerable height against the walls, has been 
removed, and provision made for securing the walls from damp. 
The stonework wherever decayed has been made good. A 
window, flanked by new pinnacles, surmounts the east window. 
The muUions of the windows, wherever it was necessary, have 
been restored ; and everything essential to the external re- 
novation of this part of the Cathedral is accomplished. 

The central tower has also been restored, strong iron girders 
have been inserted to weld the stonework together, and every 
decay, whether in wood or stone, has been carefully put right. 
The roof and the transepts have been renewed. They were 
actually found to consist of plaster vaulting with papier mache 
ribs in the Norman character ! These were of course discarded, 



: 



48 RIPON. 

and flat ceilings of the fifteenth century have been substituted. 

The exterior walls on the north and south sides, stretching 
from the transepts to the' west front now present their original 
aspect. The decayed mullions and pinnacles and buttresses 
have been renewed. Fresh stone has replaced that which had 
mouldered away. The unfinished aisles of the nave have been 
completed by an elegant and massive groining. In addition to 
all this the chapter-house, the crypt, and the library have been 
put into decent order, whilst throughout the church the plaster 
has been scraped off and every semblance of decay has entirely 
disappeared. 

In the interior the principal and most obvious changes are of 
course in the choir. The galleries and closets below, with all 
the hideous pews, have disappeared. The stallwork has been 
restored, where restoration was needed, and new work has 
been added. At the east end a plain stone arcading has been 
carried along the wall, and the sedilia have been placed in closer 
propinquity to the altar. The altar originally stood against 
a screen one bay to the westward, but this arrangement had long 
ago been given up, and it was deemed inadvisable to return to 
it. Indeed the fact that the cathedral is regarded as a parish 
church has from time to time necessitated various alterations in 
the collocation of altar and sittings, which have broken up the 
mediaeval arrangement of the choir. The general effect of the 
restoration of this part of the minster is most striking, and all the 
accompaniments of worship are so vastly superior to what 
they were, that at no time perhaps has Ripon Minster appeared 
to greater advantage. 

These admirable restorations have been carried out with funds 
collected by a committee of which Earl de Grey and Ripon was 
the president. The whole cost has been about 36,000/., 
Towards this the Ecclesiastical Commissioners contributed 
10,000/., for the necessary repairs j the remainder was raised by 
public subscription. 

In consequence of a Report of the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners, and under the provisions of an Act of Parliament, 6 & 
7 Will. IV., c. 77, an Episcopal See was erected at Ripon, 



THE CATHEDRAL. 49 

consisting of that part of the County of York heretofore in the 
Diocese of Chester, of the Deanery of Craven, and of such 
parts of the Deanery of the Ainsty and Pontefract, in the County 
and Diocese of York, as lie to the westward of the Liberty of 
the Ainsty and the Wapentakes of Barkstone Ash, Osgoldcross, 
and Staincross — a district containing the great towns of Leeds, 
Bradford, Halifax, Wakefield, and Huddersfield, among a host 
of lesser note. 

By this act, also, the Collegiate Church of Ripon, and the 
Chapter thereof, were made the Cathedral and Chapter of the 
new See ; and, according to ancient precedent, the town of 
Ripon became dignified with the appellation of a city. 

The Rev. Charles Jhomas Longley^ D.D., the amiable and 
learned head master of Harrow School, was appointed first 
Bishop of Ripon ; and was consecrated in York Minster, Nov. 
6, 1836. His Lordship was translated to Durham in September, 
1856; from thence, in May, i860, to York; and lastly, in 
1862, to the highest position in the English church, as Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. He was succeeded at Ripon by the Rev. 
Robert Btckerstethy D.D., Canon of Salisbury, and Rector of St. 
Giles'-in-the-Fields, London, who was consecrated January 
17th, 1857. 

The constitution of this Chapter was further changed by the 
Act 3 & 4 Vict., c. 113, which directs that the^ Prebendaries 
shall in future be designated Canons, and be reduced to four — 
each one of whom shall keep residence three months in each year, 
and the Dean eight months ; that the first vacant Canonry shall 
be suspended, and the second filled up, and that the Sub-deanery, 
also, shall be suspended on the next avoidance j that the Canon- 
ries shall be in the patronage of the Bishop of Ripon, who 
is constituted visitor of the Chapter ; and that a certain sum 
shall be paid by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, to provide 
for the efficient performance of the duties of the said Chapter, 
and for the maintenance of the fabric thereof It had been pre- 
viously directed, by 2 & 3 Vict. c. 55, that upon the vacancy 
of any two Canonries or Prebends Residentiary in the Cathedral 
Church of Ripon, among others, that a successor should be 

H 



50 RIPON. 

appointed to the seccmd of such vacant stalls respectively. It 
is enacted, also, by the 4 & 5 Vict., c. 39, that Honorary 
Canons shall be forthwith established in this, among other 
Cathedra] Churches ; and fourteen have been installed by the 
present Bishop. 



SURVEY OF THE CATHEDRAL.* 

** They dreamt not of a perishable home, 
Who thus could build. Be mine in hours of fear. 
Or grovelling thought, to seek a refuge here.*^ 

The first Christian church that occupied the site of the present 
Cathedral, was, doubtless, that of which we find remains in the 
Saxon crypt, called St Wilfrid's Needle ; but since, according 
to Leland, the monastery was situated elsewhere, and the 
original parish church of Ripon stood in Allhallowgate, we must 
conclude that Wilfrid built another, besides his conventual 
church, at Ripon, as he did at Hexham, and that this was its 
identical site. 

This structure would certainly not escape that devastation of 
King Edred, in 948, when even the monastery was not spared ; 
and the next which arose on the site was a church which, 
Leland says, Odo, then Archbishop of Canterbury, " caused to 
be edified wher the Minstre now is." Of this building no traces 
remain ; and the ruthless visit of William the Conqueror to the 
North will sufficiently account for its disappearance. 

This state of destitution, I apprehend, then called on Thomas 
the Norman, whom the Conqueror had appointed Archbishop 
of York, to commence a new work, of which a portion remains 
contiguous to the south aisle of the choir of the present church. 

The rapid development of architectural science, rather, 
perhaps, than the necessity of the case, next prompted the taste 
and liberality of Roger, Archbishop of York, to begin, between 
the year 1154 and 1181, the erection of a new " Basilica," of 

* References to the plan ; — 

A Nave. G The Mallory Chapel 

B West entrance. H Steps leading to the Library. 

C C West Towers. I Choir. 

D D North and South Transepts. K High Altar. 

E Centre, or St. Wilfrid's Tower. L Chapter House. 

F The Markenfield Chapel. M Vestry. 



52 



RIPON. 



which the proportions are amplified in the present structure 
only by the addition of the western towers, the aisles of the 
nave, and the elongation, by one bay, of the clerestory of the 
choir. The greater part of this work is now re-edified, yet 
sufficient remains to indicate the entire plan and design of a 
work which deserves considerable attention, not merely as the 
work of a noted builder and a member of the church of Can- 
terbury when the " glorious Choir of Conrad " was in exis- 
tence, but as having respect to a continental, rather than an 
English development of the Romanesque method, and as 
forming a useful study in comparison with the neighbouring 
and contemporary structures of Fountains and Kirkstall, Jer- 
vaux, and Byland. 

The several alterations, which were subsequently introduced, 
have been sufficiently indicated in the brief historical account 
of the building, from which, also, it will have been perceived 
that the Cathedral contains an example of every style of 
Christian architecture which has been used in England from 
its introduction in the Saxon times to its utter debasement in 
the sixteenth century. 



WEST FRONT. 

On approaching the church by Kirkgate, which leads thither 
from the market-place, the western facade rises before the 
spectator in imposing dignity and beauty. Except the modem 
addition of pinnacles and battlements to the towers, it remains 
free from those superinductions which, however intrinsically 
beautiful, often offend the eye in this portion of cathedral and 
conventual churches, and presents one of the most majestic 
specimens of the Early English style in the kingdom. Though 
it was erected half a century after the death of Archbishop 
Roger, in amplification of his west end of the nave, which 
probably resembled in spirit that of the north transept ; yet, 
with all its more artistic subdivision of individual parts, the 
general spirit — allowing for just assimilation — is strongly respec- 
tive of the Romanesque distribution, as exhibited in Roger's 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



53 



work, as well as in the general treatment of the design, shown 
definitely in the west end of Southwell Collegiate Church. 

The elevation exhibits a gabled compartment, 103 feet high 
and 43 feet wide, flanked by two towers of little superior alti- 
tude. In the basement story are three deeply-recessed 
doorways, surmounted by two tiers of lancet lights, occupying 
its whole width — and are divided by clustered and banded 
shafts, enriched with the toothed ornament, and terminated by 
foliated capitals. Each of these ten windows was, before the 
recent restoration, divided into trefoil-headed lights, and 
a surmounting quatrefoil — an arrangement which has been 
thought subsidiary to the original design ; though the date I 
have assigned to <the work will prove not to be incongruous 
with the last gradation of the Early English style. The 
mullions and the upper tracery are now removed, leaving the 
windows plain lancet lights. Above the upper tier, the centre 
window being the tallest, and the rest receding in proportion, 
according to the spirit of the old Lombard fronts, are three 
lancet lights conjoined, in the swiftly declining pediment, which 
is finished by a bold corbel table, and crowned by a modern 
cross. The towers are on the same plane as the centre com- 
partment, though divided from it by unstaged buttresses, that 
give a slight projection to each angle of the towers, and 
relieve the flatness that pervades the vast expanse of the 
western elevation. They are divided, above the basement 
story, which shows in • front a trifoliated arcade, into three 
stages, in each of which, the face, originally disengaged from 
the old nave, has an arcade of three members j the centre com- 
partment of each being pierced with a lancet light, and the 
archivolt supported by tall banded shafts, some single, some 
clustered. A corbel table surmounts the last stage, and pre- 
pared originally for the lofty octagonal spires of timber and 
lead, that long and ably completed the effect of an original and 
striking design. 

To finish the curtailed extremities, battlements were erected ; 
but these being much injured by a violent wind in 1714, the 
offensive appearance remained until 1797, when Dean Waddi- 



54 RIPON. 

love added a similar work, with pinnacles — the best relief that, 
under circumstances, could have been devised. 

The southern tower contains a peal of eight Bells, of the 
aggregate weight of gocwt. oqrs. 3lbs., cast by Lester and 
Pack, in March, 1762. Two of these were recast, and the 
whole peal rehung by Mallaby, of Masham, in 1868. There 
hung there previously five bells, and one in the opposite tower, 
which was said to have been brought from Fountains Abbey. 
It bore the following inscription, which fixes its date between 
1374 and 1388: — "IHC. Ora mente pia pro nobis 
Virgo Maria. Alexander Episcopus Ebor Dei gratia, 
&c." 

The Clock was put up by Thwaites, of London, at a cost 
of ^400, in the south tower, in 1809, in the place of a similar 
public convenience, provided by Dean Dering in 1723, 



EXTERIOR OF THE NAVE. 

Before a visitor enters the church, I would advise him to 
examine its northern elevation, in order to obtain a definite idea 
of some features that might, otherwise, seem inexplicable with- 
in ; though the eye — refreshed by the beautiful western facade 
— may not relish the more severe character of the transept, or 
even that of the nave that rises by his side. The nave is 
divided in length into six bays ; the windows of the clerestory, 
from the absence of a triforium, being sufficiently capacious to 
contain five lights, while those of the side aisles have but three, 
and consequently less ramified tracery. On the south, and, 
perhaps, earlier side, the tracery of the aisle windows, as well 
as the section of the vaulting shafts, are of less angular character 
than that of the opposite members, and the buttresses have also 
a third or additional stage. On both the sides, the buttresses 
have been prepared for pinnacles, which should be supplied, as 
also to the battlement of the clerestory ; where they would con- 
tribute much to break the monotony of its long horizontal lines 
and the gloom of the slated roof. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



55 



TRANSEPT. 



^ The north transept is the best example of the style of Arch- 
bishop Roger's "Basilica/' — the corresponding member having 
been partially rebuilt in the fifteenth century. Each side is 
divided into bays by a pilaster process, though — from the 
addition of an eastern aisle — differently treated in detail. Yet, 
in front, the unfashionable Norman arrangement of a central 
pilaster, is discarded, and those at the angles are expanded and 
elevated sufficiently to form two square bell turrets, which rise to 
a level with the apex of the pediment. They are pierced in 
the summit of each face by a plain round-headed aperture, 
divided by a mullion, while cylindrical shafts enrich the angle of 
each turret, and form rudely-pointed pinnacles to its pyramidal 
termination, surmounted by a plain knob or pommel 5 the whole 
being a good example of an arrangement which shows the germ 
of a spire and pinnacles. The semicircular-headed lights of 
the transept are arranged in two tiers, between which the tri- 
forium intervenes in the interior. Below the six windows of 
the front is the doorway, not placed in the centre, but towards 
the west, and immediately opposite to one of nearly similar 
design in the south transept. This doorway is very remark- 
able, having a plain trefoil head, rising from a corbel-like pro- 
jection, placed at the impost of the soffit, and is flanked by 
three receding shafts, whose elegantly foliated capitals assimilate 
with this Byzantine trefoil, and support an archivolt of bold but 
undecorated mouldings. 

Above the aisle of the north transept was originally a chapel 
communicating with the triforium both of the transept and of 
the choir ; but, when that member of the structure was con- 
sidered superfluous, its apertures in the transept wall were 
closed, and the roof settled to the crown of the vaulting below, 
A parapet wall and a mullion to some of the windows, is all 
that intrudes on the original integrity of this part of the church. 

The original design of the Cenral Tower may here be 
advantageously observed. The extreme pitch of the ancient 
roofs nearly hid its exterior walls, except where the space on 



56 RIPON. 

each side of the gables were pierced with a semicircular-headed 
window. A shaft that runs up the angle is checked only 
from forming a pinnacle by a capital that ranges with the 
corbel table 5 and may have suggested the moulding that was 
afterwards used in the same portions of the western towers. 
The octagonal spire of tiifiber and lead, that surmounted this 
tower until 1660, was of the height of 120 feet — having four 
spurs of the height of 21 feet and a battlement at its base. 

On passing along the Choir, we see the most perfect speci- 
men there, of Archbishop Roger's work in its three western 
bays ; though from the intrusion of Decorated windows in the 
side aisles, we may judge better of the original effect, by inspec- 
ing the contiguous side of the transept. The elevation of the 
clerestory exhibits, simply, a succession of bays — made by 
pilaster strips — each occupied by an arcade of one round, 
between two pointed members, the central one being pierced 
for a window — a Romanesque design, which was judiciously 
assimilated in the subsequent construction of the western front. 
The remainder of this side of the Choir — being the two bays of 
the Presbytery — was erected at the latter end of the thirteenth 
century, probably by Archbishop Melton (13 19-1340), and 
is worthy of examination, if only from the amount of evi- 
dence it contributes to the disputed history of the Chapter 
House at York, to which it bears strong resemblance in much 
of its character and detail. 

The elevation of the east end, though simple in outline, is 
rendered extremely effective by the massive buttresses, sur- 
mounted by corresponding pinnacles, or rather miniature turrets, 
which break it into three divisions, and flank its sides. Each 
of the aisles shows but a plain window like the lateral lights j 
but the great window of seven lights, occupying an area of 51 
feet high and 25 wide, is a magnificent example of the Early 
Decorated style, though not so rich as the contemporary east 
window at Guisbrough Priory, with which the whole of this 
facade may, indeed, be very usefully compared. 

The south side of the church, being enclosed by the wall of 
the burial ground, cannot be conveniently viewed by the visitor, 
before he is conducted through the interior. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



57 



INTERIQR OF THE NAVE. 



On entering the church by the western door, an imposing 
perspective, to the extent of 270 feet, is presented to the eye, 
intercepted only by the screen and the superincumbent organ ; 
but presenting, in the unseemly protrusion of one of the piers 
of the central tower, an anachronism, which a previous external 
inspection could alone instantly explain. The harmonious 
design of the spacious nave, captivating even to a spectator 
unacquainted with the principles and capabilities of Gothic 
architecture, will fill him with astonishment, who finds that, at 
least, the proportions of the plan were defined by antecedent 
operations ; and that a judicious apportionment of its constituent 
parts has effected all but this triumphant result. The tall and 
graceful pillars that support, without an intermediate triforium, 
a range of lofty windows of elaborate tracery, extending from 
the summit of the arcade to the panels of the roof, range on the 
foundation walls of Archbishop Roger's nave ; the aisles having 
been obtained by comprehending a space defined by the towers 
that projected to give breath to the western front. This com- 
bination has rendered the nave the widest of any cathedral in 
the kingdom, except those of York, Chichester, Winchester, 
and St. Paul's — measuring 87 feet. If we may judge from the 
bays still incorporated with the extremities of the present nave, 
the structure which preceded it must have had a sombre, 
though singular effect, having presented a lofty pointed triforium, 
surmounted by plain round-headed lights, and divided into bays 
by shafts resembling those in the transept. The aisles are 
groined j and the capitals of the springers are adorned with 
angels holding shields, five of which are charged. On the north 
side are, 

Three horse-shoes^ for Fountains Abbey. 

Quarterly ^ i and 4, two hattleaxes in pale^ in chief two 

mullets ; 2 and 3, a squirrel sejant^ cracking a nut ; being the 

arms of Archbishop Bainbridge, created a Cardinal in 15 11, and 

poisoned at Rome in 15 14. This shield is surmounted by a 

Cardinal's hat. 
I 



S8 RIfO». 

Three Stan af six rays i the medieval insignia of St. Wilfrid. 
On the south side, the last mentioned shield ; and that of 
Savage, Archbishop of York, 1501-7 — a fall imp. a pale 

fi,ii,. 

On the west pillar of the northern colonnade arc sculptured, 
also, two contemporary shields : 

1st. Three mill-picki, two and one — Pigot of Clotherholme. 

2nd. A bugle ham, belted and garnished ; being the arms of 
the town. The letters r.i.p.p.o.n., now interspersed on the 
seal of the city, are here omitted ; but the belt is studded with 
bosses similar to those of silver on that worn by the Serjeant- 
at-Mace in procession. Randal Pigot was the Wakeman in 
147 1. 



The font stood in a proper but inconvenient situation at the 
western extremity of the nave, until it was removed to that 
portion of the south aisle in 1722, when the Ecclesiastical 
Court was formed at the opposite side. This font, elevated on 
two circular steps, and of an age coeval with the nave, is an 
octagon of blue marble, whose alternate feces are filled with 
blank shields and lozenges. This font has now fallen into 
desuetude, as lately an exact facsimile of it has been produced at 
the cost of the Honorary Canons, which has been set up under 
the north-west Cower of the.iiave. Its predecessor occupies 
its old position in the south aisle, and, close to it, in the 
corner, is laid as a curiosity, the original Norman font of the 
Minster. No other cathedral, probably, can show three fonts 
in such close proximity. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 59 

Near the font, and contiguous to the wall, will be observed 
an Altar-tomb covered with a slab of grey marble, on the 
horizontal surface of which is sculptured, in low relief, the 
representation of a man and a lion in a grove of trees ; its 
romantic allusion being rendered more tantalising by a black- 
letter inscription, which is irretrievably defaced on the vertical 
stone below. A century ago, tradition recounted that it covered 
the body of an Irish Prince, who died at Ripon, on his return 
from Palestine, whence he had brought a lion that followed him 
with al| the docility and faithfulness of a spaniel. It may be 
conjectured that on this stone it was the custom for the tenants 
of the Chapter to pay their rents. The sight of the lion and 
his teeth, with his intended victim, would be a caution against 
fraud and injustice. In York Minster it was usual to pay rents 
upon Haxby's tomb ; the sides of this are of trellis work, 
through which you look with awe upon an outstretched skeleton. 

Near the north-west pier of the central tower is a monu- 
mental bust and quaint inscription commemorating Hugh Rip- 
ley, the last Wakeman and first Mayor, who died in 1637 ; 
restored, after its destruction in the time of the Civil War, 
by Mr Harvey, at the expense of the corporation, in 1725. 

It is much to be regretted that the fall of the southern and 
eastern sides of the Central, or St. Wilfrid's Tower, pre- 
viously to 1459, should have deprived us of the effect of its 
four elegant Romanesque arches, springing from an altitude 
of little less than forty feet. Though the eye will be offended 
by the mixture of the Perpendicular with the original style, 
and especially— on entering the church — by the obtrusion of its 
south-western pier, it is some consolation to find that this defec- 
tion in the design — or rather ki the Chapter Funds — has 
preserved such an interesting specimen of art as the remnant of 
Archbishop Roger's tower. On the face of the western piers 
opposite the nave, there remain at the height of 28 feet, two 
brackets, for the support of the original rood beam, which must 
have formed a most conspicuous object on entering the church. 

The Transept demands particular attention from the archi- 
tectural antiquary, as it presents, in all but in the eastern wall 



6o 



RIPON. 



of the southern member, a specimen of imperfectly developed 
Early English work ; which by comparison with the two tran- 
septs of the adjacent Abbey of Fountains, will alone afford a 
valuable illustration of the progress of architectural design in 
the latter half of the twelfth century. 

Though the original arches of the eastern aisle, and the tri- 
forium above, with its germ of double lights and tracery, 
apparently give to the interior of this part of Roger's church a 
more developed character than the exterior ; yet in its round 
and flat trefoils, its lintels, its alternating round and pointed 
arches, a strong attachment is still manifested f6r the Roman- 
esque, which must have been considerably increased, when the 
original flat roof neutralised the upward aspiring tendency, 
Which was the soul of the pointed style. This feeling may be 
also observed in each end of the transept, where the three bays 
are not continued on one plane upwards to the roof, but are 
each crowned with a semi-circular head rising from the shafts 
which divide the windows of the clerestory. 

In the aisle of the North Transept — the groining of which, 
still lingering with the square bay and flat dividing arch, merits 
notice on account of its early character — was formerly the 
Chantry of St. Andrew : the piscina, a roundly trifoliated 
aperture, with a projecting basin, remaining in the south wall. 
This chapel was also the burial place of the Markenfields of 
Markenfield, near the city ; but no memorial of them now 
remains in it, except a fine altar-tomb of Sir Thomas Marken- 
field — a warrior in the time of Edward III. — and his wife, the 
heiress of the Miniots of Carlton- Miniot, near Thirsk. He is 
vested in a suit of plate armour, and wears a collar, which ex- 
hibits the design of a parkpak and a stag couchant, above the 
elongated, but depressed pales in front — which, as had been con- 
jectured with much probability by Mr. Planche, is to shew that 
the deceased knight was a partizan of the house of Lancaster. 
His arms (argent)^ on a bend [sable)^ three bezants^ are sculp- 
tured on his breast, and on the hilt of his richly decorated 
sword ; as well as repeated, impaling Miniot, in a series of 
15 shields, graven round the tomb, commemorative of the 
alliances of his ancient and chivalrous race. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 6l 

There has been removed from the North-east angle of this 
chapel an altar-tomb of coarse workmanship, on which are 
placed the effigies of Sir Thomas Markenfield and Elenor his 
wife, daughter of Sir John Conyers, of Hornby Castle. On 
the champ or filleting of this tomb is the following memorial, 
in defaced and obscure characters ; — 

HIC lACENT TOMAS M'KNEFEID MILES ET ELENOR UXOR 

(ejus ille oEijT pri)mo menc' maij anno d['ni mcc] 

CC^LXXXXVIJ Q^ FUIT SENESCHALLVS ISTi' VILLE ET KURKBI 
MALLZEDE ET ELENOR [OBIJT] v" DIE MENc' MAIJ a" d'nI 

mcccc"lxxxx"1. 

The arms on the head and side are, i, a saltire ; 2, a 
chevron ; 3, a crass ^ory for Ward of Givendale ; 4, a maunch 
for Conyers ; 5, Markenfield j and 6, three water bougets^ pro- 
bably, for Roos. 



Near this tomb there lies against the wall a fine coped coffin 
lid, which, probably, commemorated somecanon of the Minster 
in the 13th century. Prior to the recent alterations it was 
turned face downwards. 



62 



The Markenfield Chapel has been used since the seventeenth 
century as the burial-place for the Blackets of Newby ; and, 
among several tablets to their memory, contains a cumbrous 
pile, recently restored, in honour of Sir Edward Blacket, Bart., 
who died in 1718, and is represented in a recumbent position, 
with two of his wives standing by him. The inscription is 
diffuse, but fortunately genealogical. 

A Stone Pulpit, of Early Perpendicular character, and 
unusual form — inasmuch as it is without a stem — stands by the 
entrance to the north aisle of the Choir. It has evidently been 
removed from another position, though it has been originally 
attached to a wall or a pillar. 

The destruction of the east and south sides of the Great 
Tower, about the year 1459, caused the renovation of the con- 
tiguous side of the transept, in massive Perpendicular character, 
which may be usefully contrasted with the original Early 
English mode of treatment, in the corresponding member of the 
north transept. 

The South Transept has been, immemorially, the burial 
place of the Lords of Studley Royal. Here, among many 
other of their less renowned ancestors and descendants, rest Sir 
William Mallory, one of the Coundl of the North under 
Queen Elizabeth; Sir John Mallory, who defended Skipton 
Castle for King Charles, in the Grand Rebellion ; his grandson, 
John Aislabie, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and his son, 
William Aislabie, Auditor of the Imprest, and Member of 
Parliament for Ripon sixty years. The east aisle was appro- 
priated especially for their use in 1733. Some curious frescos, 
near the entrance to the Library, discovered in 1866, merit 
attention. 

It will be almost needless to observe that the memorial of 
Mr, Weddell, at the end of the south transept, is designed after 
^horagic monument of Lyslcrates at Athens. The bust is 
Nollekens, and- the trypod on which it is placed, was 
elled Irom an antique, in his noble statute gallery at Newby. 
he present wooden ceiling is the work of the restoration 
mittee. It is supported by corbels, carved into the sem- 



THE CATHEDRAL. 63 

blance of warriors and ecclesiastics bearing shields, with the fol- 
lowing arms, principally of benefactors of the church during the 
recent restoration. North side : first, Canon Worsley 5 second, 
Bishop of Ripon (arms of the See) ; third, sword in pale; fourth, 
Earlde Grey and Ripon; fifth, three ... ; sixth, Canon Gray; 
seventh, blank; eighth, a cross flory; ninth. Arms of the 
City ; tenth, St. Wilfrid ; eleventh. Dean Goode ; twelfth. 
Dr. Atlay. On the south side the old ceiling, redecorated, re- 
mains with its coats of arms : first, three mascles; second, Norton 
of Norton; xKivA^ a mitre ; fourth. See of York; fifth j Jive mascles^ 
twoy two and one ; sixth. Fountains Abbey ; seventh^ two swords 
in saltire; eighth, Pigot of Clotherholme ; ninth, three stars ^ 
two and one. On a boss at the intersection of the ribs is 
carved an Agnus Dei, the crest or cognizance of the church. 

The stone Screen at the entrance to the Choir — " a work 
of rich entayle and curious molde" — was erected when the 
Perpendicular piers between which it is placed were renewed, 
after the ruin of the tower, about the year 1459. The present 
work is 19 feet high, and presents the arrangement, simple in 
outline, but elaborate in detail, of a doorway having four niches 
on each side, a tier of twenty-four small niches above, and a 
cornice bearing shields with rests, that appear to have been 
coloured and charged. One alone has a bearing, that of Kendall 
of Ripon. Over the door is a representation of the Holy 
Father amidst censing angels ; a figure of the Saviour has been 
removed from the lap of the Father. On the lower pedestals are 
shields, bearing a cross jlory^ for Ward of Givendale ; three mill 
picks for Pigot ; a chevron between three mullets^ for Pudsey ; three 
billets; and the mark of a merchant. The folding doors, adorned 
with elaborate tracery, are a good example of their style. They 
bear, carved on shields, a mitre ; three mascles ; three stars of 5 
rays; a sword in pale ; two keys in saltire^ surmounted by a regal 
crown ^ for the See of York; and a cross of Calvary raguled. 

The Organ, above this screen, usurped, in 1833, ^^^ place 
of one constructed on the spot, by Gerald' Schmidt, in 1695-6, 
and accounted one of the sweetest-toned in the kingdom. The 
diapasons of the great organ were of rich, full, inimitable 



^a 



64 RIPON. 

melody; but there was no swell, and only eighteen stops. The 
whole of its choir organ, comprehending the open and stop 
diapason, principal, dulciana, and flute, are, however, fortunately 
retained in the present instrument, which was built by Mr. 
Booth, of Leeds. There are twenty-six sounding stops ; but 
the weakness of the scale and the general poverty of tone in the 
full organ, as well as want of individuality in the solo stops, 
cause the eflFect in the services of the church to be very 
unsatisfactory. 

The depressed heads and spiral canopies of the three niches 
above the south entrance to the choir shew them to be coeval 
with the screen. The statue of king James I. once adorned 
the centre one, and was presented to ihe church in 18 10, by the 
Dean and Chapter of York, who had removed it from their 
gorgeous screen, to make way for Michael Taylor's more appro- 
priate and very elegant figure of king Henry VI. It now 
stands on a pillar adjoining the north west pier of the central 
tower. 



THE SAXON CRYPT, OR " ST. WILFRID's NEEDLE. 



99 



Before quitting the nave, an antiquary must not forget to 
examine the far-famed Crypt under the Central Tower, the 
position of which, and therefore of the whole of Roger's 
Church, it has directly influenced. After a narrow and incon- 
venient passage of 45 feet from the nave, he will arrive in a 
cylindrically- vaulted cell, seven feet nine inches wide, eleven 
feet three inches long, and nine feet four inches high, dark and 
cheerless as the grave. As it is all but destitute of those 
indicia by which its precise antiquity might be determined, a 
wide scale of chronology has been applied to it, and some have 
supposed it to have been orig;inally a Roman sepulchral vault ; 
in imitation of which it has indeed been constructed. By the 
comparison, however, of its ground plan, with that of a crypt 
at Hexham in Northumberland, it will become evident that 
both these crypts were built on the very same peculiar plan, 
and in the same mode of construction ; and as we know, 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



6s 



on the authority of Richard Prior of Hexham, that Wilfrid 
introduced a crypt of this remarkable character into the Con- 
ventual, Church of Hexham,* it is reasonable to conclude that 

* It may be well to illustrate this account of the Ripon crypt ^dth the notice of that 
at Hexham in Northumberland, which was drawn up by Mr. Walbran for Mr. 
Raine's Memorials of the Church of Hexham. 

** After pasdng through a narrow doorway or opening in the wall with a semi> 
circular head, devoid even of the accompaniment of a chamfer, the visitor enters the 
anti-chapel, a chamber with a barrel vault 9 feet 2 inches long, 5 feet 7 inches wide, 
and 9 feet in extreme height. Nearly in the centre of the vault, which shews some 
stones of the characteristic Saxon dressing, are traces of a small rectangular opening, 
like one in a dmilar position in the crypt at Ripon ; but for what purpose it has been 
used (the coincidence inclining me to think it is not merely accidental) it is not easy to 
conjecture. In the south wall b a small recess or niche, with a flat head in front, but 
hollow like a funnel behind, and with a deep circular cavity or basin in the base. 
This niche, which resembles all the rest in the crypt, is also perfectly unornamented. 
From this chamber we pass by a doorway opposite to that by which we enteted, and of 
similar size and character, into the chapel or main body of the crypt. It is vaulted, 
like the anti-chapel, and to the same height, the length being 1 3 feet 4 inches, and 
the width 8 feet. There is a niche in the west wall, on the right hand as we enter. 
The only member on the north side is a niche towards the east end, in all ^rspects like 
the rest ; but with this additional peculiarity, which appears not to have been noticed 
by previous writers on the crypt, that, like the celebrated " St. Wilfrid*s Needle," 
exactly in the same position tA the crypt at Ripon, it is voided to the passage on the 
other side of the wall. FA- what purpose these peculiar openings may have been 
originally used it is, perhaps, now useless to inquire. Certain only it is that, in this 
case, the niche has never been applied to the purpose for which that at Ripon was 
enlarged and became famous, as the wall behind is not cut away so as to allow a person 
to be drawn through the orifice. There are no remains of the altar, but on the north 
side of its site a plain semi-octagonal bracket is inserted in the wall, above which, the 
disposition of some drilled holes, one retaining a piece of solder, suggests that a crucifix 
had once been placed there. On the south side of the chapel, a doorway, like those 
before mentioned, with a niche in the wall a little to the left, opens into a cell 5 feet 4 
inches long, by 3 feet 6 inches wide, and roofed with large flat stones, inclining like 
the sides of a triangle, the apex of which is 8 feet from the floor. Hence we pass east- 
ward, through an archway, into a passage 2 feet 6 inches broad, and covered with large 
stones placed horizontally, leading in the same direction foo^e space af 8 feet 6 inches, 
with a gentle ascent. At this point it turns southward, and further progress was until 
recently arrested by a dry wall, probably placed there, like one in the passage on the 
opposite side of the crypt, when the western piers of the tower of the church were 
strengthened by the superincumbent buttresses. We can, however, now see that the 
western side of it continues in the same southern direction for the space of ten feet and 
more, and that near the point of divergence another passage has gone forward towards 
the east ; but the unprotected state of the earth and stones overhead prevents ferther 
investigations fi-om this side, though the southern passage might probably be traced by 
an excavation opposite the doorway which formerly led from the south transept to the 

J 



66 



RIPON. 



this also was of his foundation. Yet, since Leiand has proved 
that the Monastery of Ripon did not occupy the precise site of 
the present Cathedral, this crypt has, doubtless, not been in 
immediate connexion with the Conventual Church, but with 
another of Wilfrid's churches, now forgotten. The annexed 
ground-plan will explain the arrangements of the crypt better 
than any other description I can adopt. It may, however, be 
added, in its illustration, that in consequence of the subse- 
quent construction of the piers of the tower, it is uncertain 
whether the passages remain on their original plan. That the 
western portion of the passage from the nave has been dis- 
turbed, is evident, indeed, both from the masonry of the walls, 
and an early monumental stone, bearing a plain cross, that 
forms a portion of the roof. It may be added, too, that the 
space at the west-end of the chapel is covered by a semi-vault 
rising towards the east, which has originally carried the stairs 
of the superincumbent altar, and that the doorways, corres- 
ponding. in size and form with those at Hexham, are but rude 
apertures in the wall, each covered by a lintel, in which the 
s&mi-circular heads are gained. The niches also are but plain 
recesses, with semicircular heads. One -on the western wall 
has the addition of a deep basin in the base, and others, a fun- 
nel-like aperture behind the arch, as if to carry off the smoke 
of a lamp. ''The needle*' has been formed by perforating 
the niche thirteen inches wide and eighteen inches high, on the 
north side, through the thickness of the wall to the parallel 
passage behind, said to ascend to the porch, in the choir screen, 
behind the sub-dean's stall. 

The purposes to which this very singular place has been 

cloister court Returning now to the anti-chapel, we pass through a doorway, like 
those we have seen previously, into a cell 6 feet long by 3 feet 6 wide, with a triangular 
roof, similar to that of the little chamber on the south side of the chapel. Hence a 
passage, covered with flat stones, leading east, rises so conaderably, that, behind the 
voided niche in the chapel, fche floor is level with its base, as occurs in the crypt at 
Ripon. At this point, too, it turns northward and rises four steps, the roof becoming 
semi-circular and sloping, parallel to the graduation of the stairs. After four more 
steps eastward, further access is closed, but so little of the passage remains unexplored 
that a person stationed in it can distinctly hear words spoken in the transept of the 
church.'*— Priory of Hixham, prefece, pp. xxxix.-li. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



67 



successively applied, are not certainly ascertained — though there 
seems no doubt but that originally it was intended to serve as a 
place of retirement, humiliation, penance, and prayer. Cam- 
den was told, within memory of the Reformation, that females 
were drawn through the needle as an ordeal of their chastity — 
the culprit being miraculously detained ; or as Fuller wittily 
observed, "They prick'd their credits who could not thread 
the needle." 

As it is very evident that the " Needle " is but an enlarge- 
ment of one of the original niches of the crypt, it may be 
presumed that its purpose, whatever it may have been, has been 
devised at a period long subsequent to the construction of the 
building, when anxiety prevailed in the religious houses of 
exhibiting miraculous agency through the intervention of their 
patron saint, or of sorfie notable person connected with their 
foundation. 




EX 



/# 



Scalt^Jktt 



Although a knowledge of the legerdemain practised by our 
canons will support the belief of an ordeal more absurd than 
that which Camden has recorded ; it was, perhaps, through its 
medium as a confessional, that the Needle mortified the spirit 
rather than the flesh ; — the penitent kneeling by the narrow 
orifice he had reached from the nave, while the priest sat near the 
expanding embouchure, to which he descended from the choir. 

Lastly, this convenient peculiarity of ingress and egress 



•n 



68 



RIPON, 



might also render the vault a fit sepulchre, whence the image 
of Christ — removed on Good Friday from the nave, a type of 
the church militant on earth — would be brought up into the 
choir, the emblem of the church triumphant in heaven, on the 
anniversary of the morn of the resurrection. 

INTERIOR OF THE CHOIR. 

On emerging again to the nave, the visitor must turn to the 
elegant and spacious choir. Its proportions are defined by 
Archbishop Roger's plan ; but of his main superstructure, 
three bays on the north side and pillars on the south alone 
remain, though the outer wall of the south aisle proves the 
prolongation of the work eastward, to its present extremity. 
It may, however, be assumed, as well from its unusual length 
as from a fashion of the style — exemplified in the kindred 
abbey of Byland — that the original clerestory was shorter by 
one bay than the present, and that an aisle circulated round its 
eastern extremity. The three bays opposite Roger's work 
were renewed after the ruin of the contiguous angle of 
the central tower, about 1459 y the rest of the choir, on 
both sides, having been renewed, in the Decorated style, in 
the former half of the fourteenth century. This work — 
elegant in spirit though simple in detail — comprehends the 
presbytery j though its special character is now only indicated 
by a double suite of tracery in the clerestory windows, an arcade 
round the basement of the outer wall, and the elevation of the 
floor. Its most powerful effect, howevet, was doubtless con- 
tributed by its stained glass ; if we may judge from those frag- 
ments of the east window which escaped destruction in the 
great rebellion, and having been collected into twelve circular 
compartments in the tracery by Dean Dering, in 1724, re- 
mained there until the present glass was inserted ih 1854.* The 
date of this decoration is fixed after the year 1340, by two 

* This glass is now placed in a wdndow of the nave, near the Font. Among the 
figures that can be identified will be observed those of St. Peter with his golden key ; 
St. Paul with his sword ; St Andrew with bis cross ; and St. Cornelius with the same 
symbol foliated at the extremities. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



69 



shields that, until this recent period, remained in their original 
position in the spandrils of the sub-arches, the one being that 
of England within a bordure of France, and surmounted by a 
label of three points azure, the other that of France, azure 
seme de lis, or ; as assumed by King Edward III. 

The glass which now occupies the east window was executed 
by Mr. Wailes, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, at the cost of 1000/., 
defrayed by a public subscription throughout the diocese. The 
subject is that of our Saviour giving his commission to the 
twelve Apostles ; and in compartments below are represented 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost ; Philip baptizing the Eunuch ; 
Peter preaching to the Jews ; Peter baptizing Cornelius and 
his household 5 Paul preaching to the Gentiles ; and the first 
preaching of the Gospel to the ancient Britons. On a fillet at 
the foot is inscribed : This window was erected in com- 
memoration OF the creation of the See of Ripon. 
Anno Domini 1836. C. T. Longley, D.D., first 
elected Bishop. 

Besides a remarkable assimilation of the Early English, 
Decorated, and Perpendicular, all of which meet in the third 
bay from the east end on the south side j the choir presents 
also another remarkable spectacle in the arrangement of jthe 
windows in two tiers. This, however, formed no part of an 
original design ; but was gained by glazing the traceried aper- 
tures of the triforium, the roof of which was then settled to 
the vaulting of the aisles. Uninformed of this fact, the stu- 
dent has often gazed in astonishment on the two pointed lights 
of the round-headed arch, divided by a slender column, and 
ornamented with those sharp cusps, which are in reality, shown 
from the more modern muUion behind. 

The partial fall of the central tower, about 1459, occasioned 
ultimately the uniform re-decoration of the choir throughout ; 
and nobly did the canons accomplish their design. Elaborate 
lattice work of exceeding beauty screened it from its aisles, and 
thirty-two canopied stalls occupied the western extremity and 
the space of two intercolunmiations on each side. When the 
wooden vault was burst in by the shattered spire in 1660, the 



70 RIPON. 

Storied tabernacles of the damaged stalls on each side were 
replaced by an incongruous work ; and subsequently, from time 
to time, the lattices were carelessly and ignorantly man- 
gled to form the gallery fronts, and portions of the pews below. 
In the late restoration all this barbarous work has been 
removed and the ancient design has been carried out; 
one portion in the nprth aisle, with a singular and contem- 
porary iron scutcheon, contained a fragment of the inscription 
recorded by Dodsworth, that was **cut in wood about St. 
Wilfrid's Quire j'^ and the date mccc®lxxxx®[v]ij®. At the 
eastern extremity of the south range was the ancient throne of 
the Archbishop of York, still identified by a carved mitre be- 
hind. The space of two stalls was comprehended for this pur- 
pose in 1684; but the unseemly canopy was supplanted in 18 12 
by another throne, which was executed by Archer of Oxford, 
at an expense of 200/., defrayed by Archbishop Markham. 
This has now been replaced by a third displaying better taste. 
The shield on its ancient finial bears three estoiles, the insignia 
of St. Wilfrid, supported by angels, and surmounted with a 
mitre; the date below, Anno dn'i 1494 — the latest on the 
woodwork of the stalls — indicating the time of their completion. 
The poppy above, fashioned as an elephant bearing a military 
tower, with its defenders, is one of the most singular of its 
class of ornament ; and the fidelity with which the animal is 
detailed is very remarkable. The stall opposite to the bishop's 
throne is occupied by the mayor, as it probably was by the 
wakeman, since it is larger and more adorned than the rest of 
the adjoining range. A shield charged with two keys in sal tire, 
one of the armorial bearings of the See of York, adorns the 
finial on which the mace has been supported since 1646. The 
appurtenant subsellia display a number of curious and satirical 
conceits, in the majority of which more is meant than meets 
the eye. Samson with the gates of Gaza ; a pig playing 
bagpipes; Jonah thrown into the sea; Jonah delivered from 
the whale ; a grifEn among rabbits, one of which it has, seized ; 
a fox preaching to geese, a fox running away with a goose, and 
the dog worrying the fox, are especially worthy of notice. 



THE CATHEDRAL. 7 I 

The elegant wooden Bosses of the Perpendicular vaulting 
of the choir, which was broken in by the fall of St. Wilfrid's 
spire in 1660, are replaced with some additions in the modern 
groining ; and viewing them 
from the west, thus appear : 
Angel seated ; Head (un- 
known) j an aged man con- 
ducting a female to the door 
of a church; a Bishop giving 
the benediction; a King sea- 
ted; a Bishop seated; a King 
andaBishopseated; the Cru- 
cifixion (modem) ; the An- 
nunciation of the Virgin ; 
the Expulsion from Paradise ; 
thegoodSamaritan. Afterthe 
restoration of the choir a handsome brass Lectern was given by 
Mr. Lockwood, of Harrogate; and a richly carved oak pulpit 
was presented by the clergy of the diocese. 

An Altar-screen was erected in 1832, after a design by 
Mr. Blore; a large painting by Streator, serjeant-painter to 
Charles II., representing an Ionic colonnade, having previously 
occupied its place. On removing it, a panelled screen of wood, 
rudely painted, was discovered, and behind it the original De- 
corated reredos. Although it presents no special feature, but 
is merely a continuation of the arcade in the aisles, it was 
thought more uniform to leave it tn situ. The altar-stone, 
with its five crosses, was found below the present table. 

The original Piscina of the high altar was displaced by the 
erection of the late altar-screen ; but that of a chantry, at the 
adjoining end of the south aisle, remains in the shape of a basin 
resting on a cylindrical shaft. In this aisle too, a remarkable 
Lavatory near the vestry door must be noticed. 

Three Sedilia, with a curtailed Piscina, occupy the whole 
of the first intercolumniation from the east, and have richly 
crocketed ogee heads, resting on square pillars, the surfaces of 
which are adorned with the Tudor rose. The grotesque capitals 



72 RIPON. 

and quaintly devised cusps are interesting specimens of our 
proficiency in sculpture at the close of the fifteenth century ; 
though the general design betrays the decline of sound architec- 
tural principles. After careful restoration, the sedilia now 
occupy their proper position within the altar-rail. Solid carved 
oak lecterns; and proper furniture, have also been added. 

From indications in the wall, it is evident that there was a 
chapel in each aisle of the Presbytery ; that on the north side 
having contained the Shrine of St. Wilfrid. 

CHAPTER HOUSE AND VESTRY. 

There is attached to the south aisle of the choir a building, 
or rather a part of a building, which, being evidently of unusual 
antiquity, and unconnected either in style or plan with Roger*s 
churchy has been long confidently supposed to be the qriginal 
church of Wilfrid, or, at least, the structure erected by Odo 
about the year 950. I should contentedly concur in this latter 
proposition, if each characteristic part of the building had not 
satisfied me that its age is subsequent to the Norman Conquest ; 
and historical evidence concurred to warrant the supposition. It 
is perhaps a portion of the church which the devastation that 
ensued in these parts after the year 1069, demanded from 
Thomas, archbishop of York, who was Lord of Ripon at the 
time when the Domesday Survey was made, and died here on 
the 1 8th of November, iioo. The rest of that structure was 
doubtless destroyed by Archbishop Roger, when he commenced 
his " Basilica," this portion being retained, as convenient for 
the chapter house and sacristy ; the arcade by which it joined 
its original structure having been closed and flanked by the 
wall of the choir. This arcade, which has no capitals to the 
square piers, and but a chamfered margin, is hid from a casual 
observer in the chapter house, and encumbered in the vestry 
by two buttresses, formed in the Decorated period, to balance 
the intended vaulting of the choir. The south and east sides 
of the building only are detached from Roger's church, and 
present a peculiar appearance ; since the crypt, which runs 
its whole length, has, in consequence of the favourable declivity 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



73 



of the ground, a tier of lights, which appear prominently in the 
elevation. During or very soon after Roger's time, the chapter 
house, and probably the vestry, was vaulted with plain 
chamfered ribs, to cylindrical pillars, and t^t freestone buttresses 
applied to the southern wall; but in the vestry all traces 
of this have disappeared, except some brackets, perhaps 
in consequence of the intrusion of the Decorated buttresses. 
The vestry, however, presents a more interesting appearance in 
its apsidal termination ; where, on account of the contiguity of 
the choir, the central window is accompanied only by a light 
on the south, below which is a square recess and a small round- 
headed piscina, with a projecting basin. The altar does not 
appear to have been of stone, but its platform, a concrete mass, 
bounded by wrought stones, remains attached to the wall. 

On the south side of the vestry is a closet or small apartment 
formed in the lateral apse, which has been, originally, a kind of 
Sacristy, and, subsequently, a receptacle for the valuables of 
the church. On its west side is a recess, communicating with 
the churchyard, which has contained a sink or lavatory. 

Above the vestry and chapter house, a chapel, yet called 
the Lady Loft, was erected about 1482. It is reached by a 
flight of stairs from the south transept, which also served a 
chantry chapel over the west end of the choir aisle. There 
were formerly two divisions of the lady loft, of which the 
eastern was used as a Collegiate library; the partition was 
removed in 1840, and the whole apartment appropriated to that 
purpose ; but during the late restorations a portion of the west 
end of the library was partitioned off as a Song-School : and 
a circular staircase was constructed to connect the library with 
the vestry below. 

The foundation of the Library dates only from 1624, when 
Dean Higgin bequeathed his collection of books to the Chapter. 
Such books as the canons possessed before the Reformation 
were probably deposited in the Vestry, where Leland, a little 
while before, was shown the Life of St. Wilfrid by Peter of 
Blois, of which he has preserved some passages in his Col- 
lectanea* None of these books can be identified in the present 



74 RIPON. 

collection ; nor, indeed, can any be certainly ascertained to 
have belonged to the Chapter before the bequest of Higgin. 
In 1868 a collection of books was acquired, being a bequest of 
the late Rev. Edward Feilde, of Harrogate, and many other 
books were subsequently added by the late Dean Goode. 
The whole collection has been arranged by the Rev. J. T. 
Fowler, F.S.A*, of Durham, and some books of great interest 
and value have come to light. 

From the chapter house there is a descent into that portion 
of the crypt formerly used as a sepulchral vault: but into 
which are now collected various architectural remains. 

The celebrated '* Bone-house " no longer exists. An 
inscribed stone, fixed in the east wall of the burial ground thus 
records the removal of the bones from the crypt in which they 
had so long reposed : — ** Under this stone, in a pit 12 feet deep, 
the extent of which is marked out by boundary stones, a portion 
of the bones that were in a crypt under the south east part of 
the cathedral, were buried in May, 1865." This crypt is 
entered from the church-yard. From its vaulting the age of 
the structure is definitely ascertained. It is supported by square 
pillars, each with a plain concave capital, on which rest the 
semi-circular arches of nearly equal width. These rise from 
pillar to pillar and pier in a rect^gular form and have been 
strengthened in the Early English period, when additional 
substance has been added to the pillars themselves. The 
windows, 3 ft. 7 in. high, and 9 in. wide, retain the double splay. 

The head of the Saxon Cross, which occupied a niche over 
the Bone-House door, was found in 1832, in taking down a 
wall of the time of Henry VIII., at the east end of the choir. 

There are collected into the above crypt seven sepulchral 
slabs as early perhaps as the thirteenth century. They were 
discovered in 1832, together with the cross head above alluded 
to, on the removal of a high wall, under the great east window, 
that had screened the space between the adjacent buttresses 
from the church-yard ; and had been erected, with what precise 
intent it is impossible to imagine, about the time of the Reform- 
ation. Two of them bear the plain foliated cross j another 



i 




THE CATHEDRAL. 



75 



the addition of a book ; another of a chalice and a book j the 
fifth of a chalice and a wafer ; the last of the blade of a sword 
and some other object, indistinct even on its discovery. It is 
probable that they have been taken from the floor of the old 
nave by the Tudor builders, and that there are more concealed 
in the steps leading to the lady loft. 



Before the Reformation, Leland observed " that the Preben- 
daries' Houses," the sites of which may still be defined, " be 
buildid in Places nere to the Minstre, and emong them the 
Archebishop hath a fair palace. And the Vicars' houses be by 
it in a fair quadrant of square stone buildid by Henry Bowet, 
Archebishop of York." These six members of the church 
having been formed into a body corporate by King Henry V., had 
ordinances made for their government by the archbishop, when 
he allotted them a part of his Manor Garth for the site of their 
house, in 1450. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, when a 
college was projected at Ripon, this house was to have formed 
part of the fabric, and was repaired for that purpose ; but before 
1625 it was almost entirely destroyed, and a new house erected 
which became the Deanery. 

The Palace or Manor Hall, where the archbishop of York 
had a residence, stood on the north side of the nave of the 
cathedral, in a site which retains its Saxon appellation of " The 
Hall Yard." It was "a fair Palace" at the time of the Re- 
formation, but went so far to decay after that period, that at 
the request of the corporation in 1629, Archbishop Harsnet 
offered " to bestow his great howse, or some part thereof," as 
a workhouse for the poor. It probably was not long used for 
this purpose ; but became so dilapidated that, within recollection, 
little more than a portion sufficient for holding the Quarter 
Sessions and Manor Courts was left, its remains were ruthlessly 
and wantonly destroyed in 1830 when the present Court House 
was erected on the site. 

K 






76 RIPON. 

The park appurtenant to the palace, and in Leland's time 
** vj miles in cumpace,** is on the north side of the city, beyond 
the High Common ; but having been long divided into iarms, 
retains little trace of its original condition, except the remains 
of the Keeper's Lodge — a building in the Perpendicular style, 
incorporated with one of the farm-houses. 



TRINITY CHURCH. 

There are eleven chapels of ease appurtenant to the cathedral 
and parish church, but only this within the city. It was built 
and endowed, under the provisions of a local act of parliament, 
7 Geo. IV., c. 50, by the late Rev. Edward Kilvington, M. A., 
at an expense of 13,000/., bequeathed for Christian purposes, 
by his relative, Thomas Kilvington, Esq., M.B., a noted medical 
practitioner in this city. The first stone was laid on the 28th 
of July, 1826, and the building was consecrated by the arch- 
bishop of York, on the 31st of October, 1827. It is of cru- 
ciform arrangement, and designed by the late Mr. Thomas 
Taylor, whose 'successful practice in the delineation of our 
ancient and genuine architecture should have suggested some- 
thing better than this incongruous compilation. The spire is 
the most tolerable portion, and forms a conspicuous object at a 
considerable distance. The edifice accommodates 800 ; and 
has a powerful organ, built by Renn and Boston, of Manchester. 
On the north side of the chancel is a faithful bust of the late 
Rev. E. Kilvington, by Mr. Angus Fletcher, which, "in 
grateful remembrance of his name and work, his friends and 
hearers caused to be erected." In 1873, ^^^ church was fitted 
with modern stalls ; and otherwise renewed and beautified. 

The parsonage, built by subscription, in 1849, *^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
substantial building, and enjoys an excellent situation, overlook- 
ing the church. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

The Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, founded by 
an Archbishop of York, who was forgotten so early as 1341, 
stands on the northern extremity of Stammergate, not far from 
the river Yore. The alms-houses were rebuilt in 1674 ; but 
the chapel, on the opposite side of the way, remains as it was 
left at the Reformation. The original structure of the twelfth 
century, containing a rudely-ornamented Norman doorway, has 
been repaired during the Perpendicular era, when the screen 
and its appurtenant blanched stalls were constructed. A low 
side-window of this date, in the middle of the south wall, has 
been partially walled up. Besides these relics, there is a stone 
high altar remaining in its proper position, and on its south side 
a smaller slab in the floor, that appears, from the incised crosses, 
to have served a similar purpose, probably before the elongation 
of the chapel. The pavement before the altar, 1 1 feet long 
and 3 feet 8| inches wide, is worthy of attentive consideration j 
for if it is not actually Roman, as is generally supposed, it has 
certainly been copied from a work of that period, in the twelfth 
century. The inscription, which commemorates the re-build- 
ing of the alms-houses, is as follows : 

i^DES Hasce rvItvras a 
Solo restitvit 
Ri. HooKE S.T.P. HospiTij 
S Mar. Magdal. Magistsr 

& £CCA. COLLJB. DE RiPON 

Prebendarivs A.D. 1674 
HospiTij Patronis Rever 
MIS DoM. Archiep. Eborac. 

iepyodiwrti I.D] (sic). 

By a munificent donation from the late Rev. George Mason, 
of Copt Hewick Hall, the sum of 1000/. was devoted in 1869, to 
the erection of a New Chapel, on the opposite side of the road. 
This edifice stands prettily on rising ground, and, when backed 
by the dark foliage behind, forms an interesting object from the 



78 



RIPON. 



north road. It is built of white lime-stone in the Decorated 
style, but having, by the express desire of its founder, a perpen- 
dicular window inserted as a copy of one at Sharow church. 
The internal arrangements of the church are solid and plain. 

The Hospital of St. Anne, in High St. Agnesgate, of the 
foundation and structure of some unknown local benefactor 
in the 15th century, accommodates eight poor women with 
apartments and a small pension. In 1869 the old buildings 
were removed, and others erected a few yards behind the old 
site. For these commodious dwellings the inmates are indebted 
to the munificence of Miss Elizabeth Greenwood, of West 
Lodge, Ripon, and of her sister, the late Miss Caroline Green- 
wood. Their brother, Henry Greenwood, Esq., during his 
lifetime, augmented the endowment of the hospital by the hand- 
some gift of 1000/. The little chapel of the old foundation still 
remains in a state of picturesque decay, retaining the piscina and 
altar-stone, on which tradition asserts that the ransom of a 
Scottish king was paid. A stone bearing the arms of Sir 
Solomon Swale, of South Stainley, with the date 1664, has 
been walled into the window towards the street. 

The Hospital of St. John the Baptist, near Bondgate 
bridge, owes its origin to Thomas, second archbishop of York, 
who was translated to that See in 1 109. The old chapel, which 
was in no way remarkable, was evidently built about the time 
of Edward II. ; it was much enlarged in 18 12, and converted 
into a national school, which was very properly removed else- 
where in 1853, when the building was again dedicated to its sac- 
red purpose. In 1869 the New Chapel was erected at a cost 
of 1300/. It is a rectangular building, with apsidal chancel, and 
is carried out in the late pointed style. The west gable is sur- 
mounted with a wrought stone bell cot, in which the bell is 
placed. On removing this bell from the old chapel, the follow- 
ing inscription was discovered : — campanella : hositalis : 
s: johannis : juxta : ripon: 1663. i.w. mo- 

Jepson's Hospital, in Water Skellgate, was founded in 
1672, by Zacharias Jepson, of York, apothecary, and a native 
of this place, who bequeathed 3000/. to feoffees to purchase 



78 



RIPON. 



Maison de dieu Hospital — Explanation of Plates. 
Since Mr. Walbran wrote his guide, the original plan of 
the hospital has been ascertained, and a document has been 
found which throws much light upon these arrangements. 
In 1872 Rev. W. C. Lukis published a brief account of this 
Hospital from which the following is extracted. 

We learn that the hospital was founded for four men, four 
women, and one priest, with tvyro common beds for wayfarers. 
This document also implies that there was no endowment, 
and that the hospital was supported by the alms of the public, 
which were solicited from time to time by letters testimonial, 
granted by archbishops of the province, on application. In 
this instance the applicants were Seth Snawsell, of Bilton, 
and Robert Stokes, of Bykerton, both in this county, who state 
that '^ the chappell and massendew is founded by our ancestor." 
Most probably the foundation occurred a short while before 
the year 1438, for in this year John Graynby, rector of a 
moiety of South Otterington, near Thirsk, bequeathed a sum 
of money for a priest to celebrate for him " in capella vocata 
le masendieu, Ripon ; " and the architectural features of the 
chapel seem to point to this period. 

It is in the third pointed or perpendicular style ; the win- 
dow mouldings are simple, and poor in character. The east 
window, in its general outline, is apparently an imitation of one 
of an earlier date, and consists of two cusped lights with a 
quatrcfoil in the head, contained within a pointed arch. The 
south window is square-headed, of two lights ; a corresponding 
window was formerly on the north side, and is now walled up. 
When this was done a shield was inserted on the outside of the 
wall, and is said to bear the coat of arms of Sir Solomon 
Swale, of South Stainley. The chapel contains a stone altar 
slab, upon two rude stone supports. 

The enlrarice arch into the chapel is a striking feature on 
account of its elevation. It is of the same date as the rest of 
the building, and the halt-piers are semi-circular, and capped in 
a peculiar manner wiih a kind of triple bracket for capital. The 



««— ^»"^^^^ 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 79* 

gable over this arch was surmounted with a bell-cot, the moulded 
base of which still remains in situ. On each side of this 
entrance, there probably stood a.-benatura, or holy water 
stoup, for the separate use of the men and women as they 
passed into the chapel. One of these stoups is now placed on 
a stone base that did not originally belong to it, and in a position 
it did not occupy when it was used. 

The accompanying plan represents the hospital as it was 
before the interior space was made into separate dwellings ; 
when this was effected there was no longer any use for the two 
large fire places opposite to each other, and they were removed. 
A fragment of a stone fender was found in one of these fire 
places, and also one of the upper stones of the chimney shaft. 
The foundations of the fire places were discovered when the 
hospital was pulled down in 1869. When this regrettable act 
was committed, it was discovered that there had been two small 
fire places in corresponding positions at the extreme west ends 
of the north and south walls. The discovery of these four fire 
places has helped in arriving at some idea of the original internal 
arrangement, being assisted therein by the ancient letter testi- 
monial previously mentioned. 

There was therefore to be accommodation for one priest and 
eight poor folks, men and women and for two common beds for 
wayfarers. In the plan these requirements are taken into con- 
sideration. The four fire places and the document seem to 
tell exactly what the arrangement was. There was a western 
doorway, by which the priest entered into his apartments. The 
small fire place indicate this end of the building as the portion 
allotted to him. There were two other doorways, placed oppo- 
site to each other, at the east end of the hospital, which, as well 
as the two large fire places, were for the separate use of the 
male and female inmates. The partitions were doubtless 
formed of wood, and the doors of communication were as 
indicated on the plan. By this arrangement direct access 
was gained to the chapel by the kinds of occupants respectively 
— by the priest through the men's room, and by the men and 
women through the doors of their respective apartments. 



i 






J 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 79 

lands for the maintenance and education of twenty orphan boys, 
or poor freemen's sons, of the town of Ripon, who were to be 
admitted at the age of seven years. This institution has sub- 
sequently received benefactions, but the injudicious investment 
of the original funds, and a claim made upon the estate by the 
testator's widow, caused the number of boys to be reduced to ten, 

The Free Grammar School, in High St. Agnesgate, was 
first founded in 1546, by King Edward VI., but incorporated 
by Philip and Mary, 27th June, 1555, and endowed chiefly 
from the revenues of the chantries of the Assumption of the 
blessed Virgin Mary, St. James the Apostle, St. John the Evan- 
gelist, and the blessed Virgin Mary in Ripon, which had come 
to the crown at the dissolution of the chantries. Matthew 
Hutton, archbishop of Canterbury ; Bishop Porteus ; and Arch- 
deacon Thomas Balguy, were among the eminent men who 
received instruction here. 

The Town Hall, on the south side of the Market-place, 
w^as built from a design by Wyatt, in 1801, at the expense of 
Mrs. Allanson, of Studley. In the assembly room is a full- 
length portrait of Mrs. Allanson ; and a characteristic bust in 
marble of Mrs. Lawrence, her niece, by Mr. Angus Fletcher. 

The present Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, on Coltsgate 
Hill, "was built in 1860-1, it stands on the site of an older chapel, 
erected in 1777. The chapel of the New Connexion of 
Methodists, in the Turk's-head yard, Low Skellgate, was 
built in 1795 J and abandoned in i860 for a handsome struc- 
ture in the Early Decorated style, in Blossomgate, called Zion 
Chapel. The Temple, or Calvinist Chapel, was built in 
1818, near Allhallowgate. In 1870-1 the members of this de- 
nomination erected a handsome new Congregational Church, in 
the Early Decorated style, having a spire about 100 feet high, 
in a field called " Town Close," near the north road. There 
is a chapel for the Primitive Methodists, in Priest Lane, 
built in 182 1, which was enlarged in 1841. 

A very handsome Roman Catholic Church, in the Lom- 
bardo Early Decorated style, has been erected, together with a 
picturesque and substantial house for the priest, on Coltsgate 



8o 



RIPON. 



Hill. The corner stone was laid on the 2ist of November, 
i860, and the building opened for worship in April, 1862. 
The altar and reredos are from a design by Mr. Pugin, and 
are most elaborately carved. Below the slab are three com- 
partments containing sculptures representing the Gathering of 
the Manna ; our Lord as the Consoler of the Afflicted ; and 
the Sacrifice of Abel. The whole of this rich workmanship 
reaches a height of 20 feet, but the centre canopy runs 10 feet 
higher still. The two large sculptures represent The Preach- 
ing of St. Wilfrid at the dedication of his Monastery at Rii)on ; 
and his Death at Oundle, in Northamptonshire. 

The Mechanics' Institution was established 26th Feb- 
ruary, 1 83 1, and associated with a literary society in 1844. Its 
advantages having been long misunderstood and neglected, it 
was held in an insufficient and hired apartment until 1849; 
when, on the manifestation of a more enlightened taste, an 
independent building was erected by subscription at the east end 
of the Public Rooms. 

A National School for boys, conducted on Dr. Bell's 
plan, was held, from its commencement in 18 12, in St. John's 
Chapel, in Bondgate, until 1853, \vrhen a more spacious and 
convenient building was erected, at a cost of 900/., on a site 
granted by the Dean and Chapter, in a field adjoining Priest 
lane. The school is now conducted on the National Society's 
system. Another for girls, established originally in 1803 as a 
Sunday School, is kept in a building in High St. Agnesgate, 
erected by the late Mrs. Lawrence, of Studley. There are 
also National Schools in connection with Trinity Church, the 
Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, and the Roman Catholic Church. 

The Diocesan Training College, for the education of 
mistresses for National Schools, was opened at Ripon in August, 
1862, when the establishment was removed from York, but 
continued to be governed by the same body up to 187 1. It is 
now under the direction of the Ripon Diocesan Board of Edu- 
cation. The building, which is large and commodious, stands 
prominently on rising ground behind the Crescent, and accom- 
modates 62 students. The foundation stone was laid by 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 8l 

the Lord Bishop of Ripon on the 4th of December, i860. 

A Dispensary was commenced in Ripon as early as 1790, 
but, lacking sufficient endowment, it was held in a dwelling- 
house, until the bequest of 1000/. by the late Mrs. Lawrence 
was judiciously expended, in 1850, in the erection of a suitable 
building in Ferraby Lane. It has recently been conducted 
with a most beneficial result. 

A great local accommodation was acquired in 1833, by the 
institution of thfe Public Rooms, in Low Skellgate. A com- 
modious mansion, with a garden extending to the river behind, 
was first purchased by shareholders, and appropriated chiefly to 
the establishment of a circulating library and a news room; 
but the project having been encouraged, another building, con- 
taining an apartment 52 feet by 26 feet, and suitable for general 
public assemblies, was erected in addition in 1834. 

A Temperance Hall was erected in 1869, by shareholders, 
at a cost of 800/. It is situated in Duck Hill, near the post 
office, and accommodates about 300 persons. 

In 1830 a joint-stock company established Gas Works. 
They are now, however, the property of the corporation, and 
have been improved and enlarged to meet the increased require- 
ments of the city. The gas house is in Stammergate. 

In 1776 a private individual constructed Water Works in 
the mill at Duck-hill 5 but the supply being deficient, and the 
quality of the water very impure, the corporation took the 
matter in hand. During the mayoralty of Mr. Alderman 
Ascough, a new building was erected on the banks of the 
Yore, and an extensive system of service pipes was laid down. 

In 1767 an enterprising party, by the aid of the celebrated 
Smeaton, rendered a portion of the river Yore navigable, and 
formed a canal from the river to the city. In 1845 ^^^ interests 
and property of the proprietors were transferred to the L^eds and 
Thirsk Railway Company. 

According to the enumeration made on the 2nd of April, 
187 1, there were in Ripon and the appurtenant township of 
Bondgate, 1673 houses, and 6874 inhabitants, being an increase 
of 635 inhabitants since the census of 186 1. 



STUDLEY ROYAL. 



In shadier bovm 
More racred and »queE[er'd, chough but feigned. 
Pin 01 Sylvanus never s)e|>t, nor Nymph, 
Ndi Fauniu haunted. 

Milton, Pa». Lost, B. IV. 705. 

I N ^rceable stroll through our western suburb, and 
the wooded copses that rise in gentle undulation 
from the banks of the Laver beyond, leads us to 
the far-femed scenes of Studley Royal. A volume 
would be insufficient to discuss the diversified 
beauties wkh which it abounds ; and the utmost that can be 
attempted here is to state fticts that may be useful to the enquir- 
ing eye, and become a memorial for the retrospective mind. 

For five centuries, the families of Aleman, Le Gras, Tem- 
pest, and Mallory, each of which produced men eminent and 
" ' ' 1 their generation, enjoyed, successively, a domain 
e potency of their neighbours forbade them to enlarge j 
d in their deep meads and waving woods a quiet and 
njoyment, which until the dawn of the eighteenth 
vas not deemed capable of being transmuted to that 



THE PARK. 



83 



source of intellectual gratification in which countless thousands 
have since participated. John Aislabie, who from the rank of 
a country gentleman raised himself by the vigour of his intel- 
lect to the office of chancellor of the exchequer, was then 
possessed of Studley Royal, in right of his mother, Mary, the 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Mallory, an heroic 
and loyal knight. He saw the rare beauties that nature offered 
in profusion around his ancestral home, and, after he had ex- 
changed the tumult of the political arena for the more sincere 
pleasures and occupations of a country life, nobly and ener- 
getically devoted himself to their development. The little 
copses that surrounded the antique manor house were changed 
into an extensive park ; diverging avenues supplanted intersect- 
ing hedge rows, the beck was expanded into a lake, the mansion 
was fashioned into correspondence with its noble accompani- 
ments ; and lastly, a portion of the little valley of the Skell, 
that intersected his park, was transformed into a most delectable 
pleasure ground. William Aislabie, his only son, enjoyed the 
leisure of a long life in maintaining and extending what his 
father had done. His eldest co-heir, Mrs. A Hanson, was pre- 
cluded by the delicacy of her health from residing at Studley ; 
and on her decease, in 1808, it devolved, with the rest of her 
extensive possessions, on her niece and heir, Mrs. Lawrence, 
than whom none could have tended them with a more liberal 
and faithful hand. On the decease of Mrs. Lawrence, in July, 
1845, ^^^ whole of the estate at Studley became vested, by the 
provisions of her wBl, in the Right Hon. the Earl de Grey, one 
of whose ancestors married a sister of the Chancellor Aislabie. 
His lordship died November 14th, 1859, ^^^ ^^ succeeded 
by his nephew, the Right Hon. the Earl de Grey and Ripon, 
who acquired the title of Marquess of Ripon in acknowledg- 
ment of his services on the Alabama Commission in 1871. 

After passing through the village of Studley, and arriving at 
the park lodge, the eye is restrained from excursion into the 
woodlands by a noble avenue of limes, above a mile in length, 
that guides our path and directs the eye to the Church, lately 
erected by the present noble owner, and of which more will be 



84 



STUDLEY, 



said hereafter. The Mansion House, which retains a frag- 
ment as early as the fifteenth century, may be seen whilst rising 
the hill, at some distance on the right ; but it is not shown to 
visitors. 

Midway the park, we diverge to the left, down a beechen 
avenue to the little valley of the Skell, where the stream, con- 
ducted by a ft>rmal cascade with all due accompaniment of 
balcony and turret, expands into a Lake covering twelve acres. 
A number of domestic fowls enliven its expanse with their 
gambols and evolutions, while anon 

** The Swan, with arched neck 
Between her white Mings mantling, proudly rows 
Her state with oary feet." 

The banks rise swiftly from the water's edge, clothed with 
dense woods, through whose commingled beech and chestnut 
shade we reach the gates. 

The disposition of the grounds may be easily perceived. 
The original design of the Chancellor Aislabie, who com- 
menced operations about 1720, aided by his skilful gardener, Mr. 
Wm. Fisher, was to contract the devious beck into a level paral- 
lelogramic canal, adorned with statues on its terraced banks, 
and bounded by dense hedges of evergreens which sheltered an 
ample valley, whence, through openings artfiilly contrived, a di- 
versity of prospects could be obtained. A prudent and judicious 
respect for the old arrangement is still preserved, but modified 
so as not to offend modern hypercriticism by its antiquated 
state. The extreme contraction of the valley, and the propor- 
tionate inclination of its declivity, favoured the design, and 
allowed the extension of walks through the luxuriant thickets 
above, whence a new and more extensive series of prospects 
could be obtained, and more natural beauties developed. An 
interchange of scenery from a few hundred yards on each side 
of the river (crossed then, as now, at the rustic bridge), was 
thus, with the upper walks on the right, all that the adjacent 
demesne of Fountains allowed the projector to obtain; but 
when his son, who, wisely relying on his own ability, often 
declined the officious ofFers of Kent and Brown, purchased 



THE GROUNDS, 85 

the abbey, he continued the walk from below Anne Boleyn's 
Seat, up the southern bank of the circling stream, and after cir- 
cumventing that '' noble wreck in ruinous perfection," brought* 
it down the opposite side of the valley, and so joined the old 
decorated grounds at Tent Hill, where he erected a temple, 
long since fortunately destroyed. 

With this rough outline we will proceed. After leaving the 
gates, shrouded in lofty and luxuriant trees and evergreens of 
stately growth, that remind us, especially when looking towards 
the balcony of the lake, of the incomparable Versailles, and 
many a delectable but ever-banished scene of our own " fair 
good lande,*' a bank of closely-shaven laurel first meets the 
eye, that would wander more willingly up a long and solemn 
glade that diverges from the valley, called Kendall's Walk. 

By the side of one of those gigantic beeches, whose altitude 
is forgotten while passing under their grateful shade, we have 
a glance of the Octagon Tower rising abruptly on the other 
side of the valley ; and, by the water below, a cast in lead of 
two Contending Gladiators. 

Still passing behind the dense wall of yew, with its lofty 
canopy, we are surprised by a prospect, set in a verdant frame, 
of the valley in its widest part ; the Temple of Piety in the 
opposite wood; the Moon and Crescent Ponds, and their 
accompanying statues of Neptune, Bacchus, and Galen. 

The uninformed lover of nature, as well as the scientific 
observer, will alike gladly halt on the declining lawn to view 
the noble trees that tower aloft before them in wonderfiil 
height and beauty. A Norway Spruce Fir, near the walk, 
and straight to the top, displays luxuriance seldom equalled but 
in its native land. It is 132 feet high, I2f feet in circum- 
ference above its roots, and would form an impervious shade to 
an assembly of at least fifty persons. Another fir nearer the 
canal, which canopies the statue of the Dying Gladiator, is 1 1 
feet 2 inches in circumference, and equally symmetrical as its 
companion, which being more disengaged claims readier atten- 
tion. A third, near the last, is but eight feet in circumference. 
None of these, however, should disengage the eye from a 



86 STUDLEY. 

Hemlock Spruce, of most graceful form and foliage, the 
stem of which has attained the height of 60, and the circum- 
ference of 7 feet. These trees having been planted by the 
Chancellor Aislabie, about 1720, may be a useful criterion in 
estimating the growth of their species. Upon a slope to the 
right stands a Wellingtonea Giganteay planted on the 6th of 
August, 1863, by H. R. H. the Princess of Wales, in com- 
memoration of her first visit to Studley Royal. 

The old '' peeps " are soon resumed, and the first is a sur- 
prise, across a declining bank of laurel and yew, overhung with 
more graceful foliage, down the long canal and so to the great 
lake in the park — the Moon and Crescent Ponds, with their 
several terraces and statues filling the bosom of the valley on 
the right, and the Octagon Tower rising in the mid distance 
from a clump of firs. Soon after, we have another diversion 
through the laurels towards the statues of Hercules and 
Anteus in contention, in the most contracted pass of the dell ; 
and a pillared Dome in the hanging woods beyond. 

Diverging, reluctantly, from the path rising through the 
woods • towards the abbey, we cross, to the opposite side 
of the valley, over a Rustic Bridge, where the stream is 
seen gliding tranquilly through verdant space adorned with 
terraces, and begirt with ancient trees. But, before we reach 
the other side of the valley, we stray into a wooded amphi- 
theatre, filled with a translucent Lake, whose refreshing 
expanse mirrors but the embrowned shades of accliving woods, 
and the airy forms of an inconstant sky. 

Anon, and the eye, that will be gladdened by nothing but 
Nature, naked and unadorned, now peers joyfully through the 
thicket on an irregular pool, where circumambient bou8;hs 
image their glistening spray, and lave in waters that seem black 
and bottomless as oblivion. It is called " Quebec,*' and on 
its little island is a Pillar, now hidden in the tangled foliage, 
to the memory of the gallant Wolfe. 

A few steps more, and the expanse of the valley, in all its 
formality, yet, perhaps, in all its peculiar beauty, opens upon us 
near the temple that rises in the grove by our side. The build- 



THE GROUNDS. 



87 



ing is named the Temple of Piety, the chief apartment being 
adorned with a mural basso-relievo of a female nourishing her 
captive father from her breast. The bronze busts in the niches 
below contrast the characteristic heads of Titus and Nero. 

Awhile, and the scene which has been so airy and vivid is 
suddenly changed. Striking aside from the lawn into the wood, 
we wind up a toilsome path — by the sides of which, yews of 
no recent growth are rooted in the -fissures of the shelving 
crag — and enter, at length, a subterranean Passage, hewn 
partially in the rock. It seems neither long enough nor dark 
enough for the majority of its youthful visitants, but a local 
difficulty was thus pleasantly overcome. 

From the Octagon Tower which during our ramble we 
have often seen, and now reached at last, we have a bird's- 
eye view of many of the objects we have visited. Studley 
Hall, too, is seen on the right ; and from the opposite window, 
How Hill,* with its mimic tower, rears its majestic head. 

Though now passing a long and artless avenue of beech, 
unfortunately mingled with the grisly fir, we seem to tread the 
woodland slopes of the park, and are gladdened, through the 
slanting boughs, by its lowing herds and coursing groups of agile 
deer ; we turn again, ere long, down a lofty aisle " of beechen 
green, and shadows numberless," where the fitful murmur of 
the rushing stream reminds us of our elevated position. An 
opening towards the park presents a view of Morkershaw 
Lodge ; and another of the Roman Monument, impending 
high above the Skell. At length, we turn on the opposite side 
to a circular pillared dome, jutting into the valley, dedicated 
to Fame, and on all other sides similarly difficult of access. 

* This hill, which rises in a conical form to the hdght of 622 feet above the 
level of the sea, and forms a remarkable object at a distance of more than twenty 
miles, is worthy of a visit from those whose time is not limited, and would consider 
themselves repaid by an almost boundless view of the. great plain of York. It was 
anciently called Herleshow, as probably from being the place where the Saxon Earl of 
the County held his Court, as from its early possession of one who bore the name of 
Herle. The monks of Fountain; had on the top of this hill a Chapel dedicated to 
St. Michael, which from an inscription walled into the present little tower, erected by 
Mr. Aislabie, in 171 8, appears to have been rebuilt or repaired by Abbot Huby, between 
1494 and 1526. SOLI DEO HONOR M. H. ET GLORIA. 



Pursuing hence the ample path, which noble oaks " high 
over arch'd embower," snatching, nevertheless, through the 
airy spray, occasional glimpses of the coming '* Fountain dale," 
we arrive at Anne Boleyn's Seat, where the guide, with 



innocent triumph, was wont to throw open the doors and unveil 
to the amazed and enraptured eye a scene where pen and pencil 
must fail. 

Now, all attention is naturally centred in the abbey, and 
fortunately, there is nothing intervening to distract the eye. 
We begin, immediately, to hasten down a precipice, arched, 



THE GROUNDS. 89 

deeply and picturesquely, in the woods ; and, on arriving at the 
path by the side of the stream, will perhaps scarcely glance at 
the diversity of scenes which the union of the dense woods 
with their liquid mirror presents. 

Yet awhile may fancy beguile us with merry visions of the 
past. On this glade — doubt who can — the " Curtal Friar " of 
Fountains encountered Robin Hood, whom, as the old ballad 
goes, he at length threw into the Skell, and so grievously 
belaboured, that Robin, for once, turned coward, and called in 
the aid of his lifty stalwart yeomen ; also that then the Friar 
whistled out as many of his good ban-dogs, but that Little 
John let his arrows fly so &st among them that the Friar, who 

was brought to his senses and a truce. Before we reach the 
abbey, we shall be seduced to halt on a shady knoll ; and, 
while reclining by the crystal Well that still bears the Out- 
law's name, may chant the " Rime of Robin Hod " in one of 
the sweetest spots associated with his name. 

Tradition points to the figures of a large bow and arrow and 
hound, graven on the north-east angle of the Lady Chapel, as a 
record of this dire aiFray. They bear no affinity to the symbols 
used by the masons ; but have, I fancy, induced the report, 
mentioned by Ritson, that Robin's bow and arrow were pre- 
served at Fountains Abbey. 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



jLTHOUGH we have, some rime ago, entered the 
close, we now pass into the immediate precinct of 
the abbey, and see at once before us "a captivat- 
ing scene of landscape and architectural beauty, a 
highly interesting subject of contemplation, and a 
source of that pensive and pleasing melancholy in which the 
mind sometimes loves to indulge." Before, however, wc pro- 
ceed to a particular survey of the structure, it will be necessary 
to premise a few facts illustrative of its origin and history. 

The site of the Monastery was granted, in 1132, by Tur- 
stan, archbishop of York, out of his Liberty of Ripon, '* to 
certain monks who had separated themselves from what they 
deemed the lax discipline of the Benedictine Abbey of St. 
Mary, in York, and resolved to adopt the Cistercian rule, which 
was then becoming ^mous frpm the reputed sanctity and dar- 
ing enthusiasm of St. Bernard. Richard the Prior, with the 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 9 1 

sub-Prior, ten monks of St. Mary's, and Robert a monk of 
Whitby, retired, in the depth of winter, to this secluded, and 
at that period, wild and uncultivated dell, where their territory 
was defined by the archbishop, who had previously maintained 
them in his house. At first, their only shelter was under the 
impending rocks ; but, after a while, they thatched an enclosure 
under an umbrageous elm, in the middle of the valley, which 
was even flourishing at the dissolution of the abbey. Some 
yew trees, also, near the ruin, are traditionally said to have 
sheltered these enthusiastic men.'* The winter having passed 
away, they began to consult about the mode of life they should- 
henceforth pursue, and seeing no way more direct to the per- 
fection they had in view than the adoption of the Cistercian 
rule, they sent messengers to St. Bernard, informing him that 
they had chosen him as their spiritual father, and were ready to 
obey his commands. Accordingly Geoffrey, a monk of Clairvaux, 
was sent to instruct them, by whose advice they erected humble 
places of abode and laid out the several necessary offices. 
Meanwhile seven clerks and ten laymen were admitted, but 
no property was acquired and they were still dependent on their 
old benefactor for the means of livelihood. Ere long a famine 
arose in the country and oppressed the brethren severely, for 
they had neither bread nor provisions wherewith to relieve the 
wants of the poor who resorted to them. Having endured for 
two years such hardship as at length to subsist on boiled leaves 
and herbs, their patience began to fail. The abbat, therefore, 
almost desperate, went over sea to St. Bernard, and begged 
that he would remove them to one of the granges of his abbey 
of Clairvaiix, in Champagne. Their request was granted, but 
whilst the abbat was yet beyond sea, Hugh, dean of York, 
feeling his health declining, retired to Fountains, bringing with 
him not only a great store of money and personal property, but 
a valuable collection of books of the Holy Scriptures. The 
aspect of affairs in Skelldale being thus changed for the better 
on the return of abbat Richard, the projected emigration was 
abandoned. 

It was about this time, I presume, when a permanent settle- 



92 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

ment seemed probable, that the place of their residence, with 
other lands, was legally conveyed to the monks by the charter 
of Archbishop Turstio, of which the following is a translation. 

XunsTAN, by the grace of God Archbishop of York, to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and to all Bishops, Abbats, Clerks, Barons, and Laymen of all England, 
and to their successors, greeting. We make known to you all, that we have given in 
alms to God and St. Mary of Fountains, and to the Abbat and Monks,, part of the 
Wood of Herleshow, according to the boundary which we have pointed out to Richard, 
the first Abbat of the same place ; and that we have allowed (oi conceded) that ^rtion 
of land which Wallef, son of Archil, our vassal, gave to the same church, which is 
adjoining the same wood in which we have founded the said church. Moreover we 
have given to the aforesaid church, two carucates of land, in wood and opei) ground in 
Sutton, except one ploughland which lies on the east side of the way leading from Ripon 
to Stainley ; and let this be clear to you all, forasmuch as they have professed to live 
according to the rule of the Blessed Benedict. All the aforesaid things ^ have granted 
in alms aforesaid ; quit and free of all land-service due to us and our successors, under 
these witnesses : — Witness, William the Dean, and William the Treasurer, Hugh the 
Precentor, Osbert the Archdeacon, Walter the Archdeacon, Fulk the Canon, Serlo the 
Canon, William de Percy, Anfiid the Canon, Garfrid the Canon, Achard the Canon, 
Letold the Canon, and all the Canons of St. Peter. Witnesses also, William Marton, 
and Robert de Pinkney, and Simon, and Clibert, and Gislebert, Canons of St. Wilfrid. 
Witness also, William the Steward, and Robert the Constable, and William Unahait, 
and Richard the Thief-taker, and Hugh son of Hulric, and Robert of Herleshow, and 
Wallief of Studley, and Richard his brother, and Hulchil the Bailiff. 

But the settlers in Skelldale were to be again enriched by 
members of the church of York. Serlo, one of its canons, 
and Tosti, a fellow canon — a jocund and social man withal — 
retired here with their wealth, and enriched the Order with 
much personal property. Shortly after this Robert de Sartis and 
Reginalda his wife, owners of the vill of Herlshow, a district 
in which the abbey had been founded, conveyed it to them with 
some contiguous lands and the forest of Warshall. Then too, 
Serlo de Pembroke, owner of the adjacent vill of Cayton, being 
on the point of death, bestowed that fertile estate upon them. 
They also procured from King Stephen, when at York in 1 135, 
the necessary confirmation of these possessions, and an attendant 
exemption from all aids, taxes, danegelds, assisses, pleas, and scu- 
tages, as well as of all customs and land service due to superior 
lords. Such, briefly, was the temporal position which the 
monks had acquired within three years after they sat homeless 
under the elm tree, having laid the foundation of that magnifi- 
cence of which such ample testimonies remain. 





■ 

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 


93 






LIST OF THE ABBATS 


OF FOUNTAINS 


• 






NO. 


ABBATS* NAMK8. 


P£RI0D OF 


WHXR£ BURIED. 


HOW VACANT. 






I 




ABBACY. 








Richard, ex-Prior of) 
St. Mary's York . ( 


1 1 32 II 39 


At Rome 


• 

Death. 




2 


Richard 


1 1 39— 1 143 


Clarevaux 


Death. 






3 


Henry Murdac,elected i 
Archbishop of York ) 


1 143— 1 1 53? 


York Cathedral 


Death? 








Maurice of Rievaux 


Abt. 3 mths. 


• • • • 


Resignation. 








Thorold of Rievaux 


About 2 yrs. 


• 
• • • < 


Resignation. 






4 


Richard Fastolph, ) 
Prior of Clarcvaux .( 


I I 53 — I I 70 


Chap. H. Fountains 


Death. 






5 


Robert, Abbat of ) 
Pipewell 


1170 — 1179 


Chapter House F. . 


Death. 






6 


William, Abbat of 
Newminster . 


I I 79 — I I 90 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






7 


Ralph Haget 


1 1 90— 1203 


Chapter House F. . 


Death. 






8 


John de £bor 
John, afterwards j 
Bishop of Ely j 


1203 — 121 I 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






9 


1211 — 1219 


Ely Cathedral . 


Promodon. 






lO 


John de Cancia . 


1220 — 1247 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






II 


Stephen de Eston . 


1247^1252 


Chapter H. Vaudy . 


Death. 






12, 


William de Allcrton 


1252 — 1258 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






'3 


Adam 


1258 — 1259 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






14 


Alexander , . 


1259 — 1265 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






15 


Reginald 


1265 — 1274 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 








Peter Alyngs 


1275 — 1279 


Chapter House F. . 


Res. or Dep. 






16 


Nicholas 


6 months 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






17 


Adam Ravenswotth 


1280 — 1284 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 








Henry Otley 


1284 — 1289 


Chapter House F. 


Resignation ? 








Robm Thornton . 


1289 


Chapter House F. 


Resignation ? 






18 


Richard Bishopton 


1289 — 1310 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






"9 


William Rigton . 


1311 — 1316 


Chapter House F. 


Death. 






20 


Walter Coxwold . 


1316 — 1336 


Chapter House F. 


Resignation. 






21 


Robert Copgrovc . 


1 336-1 345-6 


Chapter Home F. 


Death. 






22 


Robert Monkton . 


1346^1369 


The Church F. 


Death. 






*3 


William Gower, B.D. . 


1369 — 1383 


Nine Altars F. 


Resignation. 






24 


Robert Burley 


1383 — 1410 


Choir Fountains 


Death. 








Roger Frank, intruder . 


1410 — 1414 


• • • • 


Expulsion. 






2^5 


John Ripon 


1414-1434-5 


Nave of Church F. . 


Death. 






26 


Thomas Passelew . 


1434- 5-1442 


Nave of Church F. . 


Resignation. 






27 
28 


Jqhn Martin 

John Grcenwell, D.D. . 

Thomas Swinton . 


Seven weeks 
1442— 1471 


Nave of Church F. . 


Death. 






29 


1471— 1479 


• • • * 


Resignation. 






30 


John Darnton 


1479-1493-4 










31 


Marmaduke Huby 


1494 — 1526 


• • • . 


Death. 






32 


WilUam Thirsk, B.D. . 


1526-1536-7 


. . • • 


Resignation. 






33 


Marmaduke Bradley 


1536-7-1539 


. • • • 


Resignation. 






F< 


>r facility of reference to 


inscriptions and 


records, the enumera 


tion used by the 




monk 


s themselves is adopted ; 


but it must be c 


>bserved that it excludi 


es Maurice and 


Thorc 


»ld, who, I presume, were 


only deputies to 


Archbishop Murdac, a 


ind also Alyngs, 


Otlcy, 


Thornton, and Frank. 









94 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



Shortly after, many of the devoted men, from whose exertions 
such great results had flowed, were to be called away to labour 
in distant vineyards. In 1137, Ralph de Merlay, a powerful 
Northumbrian baron, having witnessed the conversation of the 
fraternity at Fountains, erected a monastery near his castle of 
Morpeth, which received the name of Newminster. On the 
5th of January, 1138, a colony of twelve monks, with Robert 
as their abba^, who afterwards attained the honours of sanctity, 
departed to take possession of the place. The result of their 
labours may be judged from the fact that, within ten years they 
had supplied members for three important convents — Pipewell 
abbey in Northamptonshire, Sawley abbey in Craven, and Roche 
abbey in South Yorkshire. Within two years two other colo- 
nies emigrated from Skelldale. One body of monks under the 
abbacy of Robert de Siwella, took possession of the abbey of 
fcirkstead, on the banks of the Witham, founded by Hugh 
Fitz Eudo 5 whilst another, under GeoflFrey the backslider, 
established a convent at Haverholme, not for from the town of 
Sleaford. The latter colony, however, became dissatisfied with 
their situation, and were removed by their founder to the vicinity 
of Louth. In 1 145 Hugh de Bolebec consecrated the vill of 
Woburn, with an adjacent estate, to divine uses, and founded 
the abbey of Woburn in Bedfordshire, for which abbat Murdac 
supplied him with the requisite number of monks. The next 
year was distinguished by an undertaking of a more bold and 
interesting description ; Sigward, bishop of Bergen in Norway, 
being in England, was attracted to Fountains, and, influenced by 
their mode of religious life, besought the abbat to furnish him 
with the spiritual means for establishing a Cistercian monastery 
in his own country. Murdac discussed the proposition with his 
brethren, and thirteen of them having consented to brave the 
perils of a missionary life in a barbarous country, they departed 
from Fountains on the loth of July, 1146, and established the 
monastery of Lysa, situate in a valley a little to the south of 
Bergen. Henry de Lacy, of Pontefract Castle, having been 
visited with a protracted illness, vowed the erection of a Cister- 
cian monastery, and assigned the vill of Bernoldswic in Craven 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 



95 



for that purpose. On the 19th of May, 1147, Alexander the 
Prior of the monastery and one of its first fathers, with twelve 
of his brethren, amongst whom was the Chronicler Serlo, went 
forth to take possession. But the climate proved unsuitable, 
and after a trial of five years they abandoned the site for a fertile 
spot in Airedale, where arose the abbey of Kirkstall. Within 
five days after the departure of the monks to Bernoldswic, 
another convent, with Warine as their abbot, were sent out to 
institute an establishment at Bytham in Lincolnshire, some time 
after removed to Vaudey abbey. Meaux abbey, founded in 
1 150 by the Earl of Albemarle, was the last of the daughters 
of Fountains. Adam, one of the original settlers in Skelldale, 
was its first abbat. 

The history of the abbey is minutely related in "Memorials 
of Fountains Abbey," from the narrative of Hugh, a monk of 
Kirkstall, written between 1225 and 1247, at the request of 
John, abbat of Fountains, from the dictation of the venerable 
monk Serlo, who was present at the departure of the brethren 
from St. Mary's, at York, and had witnessed most of the 
chequered scenes he has so pathetically and graphically recorded. 
Yet, as he was more anxious to recount the spiritual trials and 
triumphs of his brethren than the secular history of their house, 
we find few allusions to the progress of the structure, or to the 
scientific acquirements of those by whom it was promoted. 
We learn, however, that after the election of the abbat, 
Henry Murdac, to the see of York, about 1 146, some parti- 
sans of his deposed predecessor, disappointed in their expec- 
tation of finding Murdac here, set fire to the monastery, which, 
with half of " the oratory," was consumed. The conlrent, 
aided by the neighbouring gentry, immediately repaired an 
injury, which, however extensive, had doubtless been confined 
to the inflammable portions of the building ; but, since every 
part of it had been erected within fourteen years, existing 
remains cannot aid us in the investigation. During the re- 
mainder of the twelfth century, the work of building never 
can have ceased, though it is probable, from our knowledge of 
the characters of the abbats Fastolph, and his successor. 



96 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



Robert, that in their time it progressed with unusual vigour. 
On the decease of Ralph the seventh abbat, in 1203 — a period 
^hen there was such an unusual number of monks in the 
house, that there was no fitting place for the performance of 
their devotions — ^John, his successor, a stout-hearted York- 
shireman, who maintained in the retirement of the cloister the 
politic temper of the world, projected the erection of a choir, 
to the astonishment — nay, the indignation— of his contempor- 
aries. He lived only to lay the foundation and raise some 
pillars, but he left a kindred spirit in another John, who suc- 
ceeded him in 121 1, and after a diligent superintendence of 
eight years was elected Bishop of Ely. The Convent then 
availed themselves of the ability of a third John, a Kentish 
man, who, with a vigour of mind like that of the original pro- 
jector, brought the design to a conclusion. He not only insti- 
tuted the nine altars, and added a ''painted pavement," but, in 
prosecution of an original project, constructed the southern half 
of the great dormitory of the monks, with an undercroft for 
the purpose of an ambulatory ; an infirmary ; and, as it has 
been said, two houses for the entertainment of strangers. It 
would appear, however, from their ruins that he only enlarged 
them considerably. These particular works are ascribed to 
him by the continuator of the Chronicle ; but, I apprehend, 
he wrote too long after the period to be able to do full justice 
to his energy and ability ; and the style of the abbat's house, 
in particular, apparently assigns to him the distinction of having 
erected one of the noblest works of domestic architecture that 
was raised within the kingdom, in his time. It was so utterly 
ruined after the dissolution of the abbey, that its ground plan 
has only been recently disclosed : but, if my conjecture is well 
founded, traces of one apartment, not less, than 171 feet long 
and 70 feet wide, partly built on tunnels above the river, may 
alone attest such boldness of conception and scientific skill 
as to excite unusual regret that Time has preyed upon his 
memory. He died in 1247, having probably seen the build- 
ings of the abbey nearly completed. "A period of sub- 
sequent poverty and distress was followed by great prosperity 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 97 

in the next century. Many persons of power and opulence 
purchased, hy large donations, a sepulture within the walls of 
the abbey.* Favoured by popes, kings, and prelates, with 
various immunities and privileges, and enriched by a succession 
of princely gifts, Fountains abbey became one of the wealthiest 

• The SurteeB Society have publishcsl, under the edjtonhip of the author of chii 
book, the Chronicle of the abbey, 1 most investing and acceptable work to hUtorical 
enquirers. The present noble owner of the Monastery helped on the work with 1 
hearty good-mil. In every possible way; and, "with hereditary munificence, threw 
open to the Society his Munlmenl room at Smdley." One among the many chitteit 
in his lordship's possession will interol every visitor. It is the grant of chat portion of 
ground which hemmed in the monks, until the donor's day, on the north-si,<le — those 
pleasant fields from which the sketch of the abbey tower and How-hill on page 90J1 
taken. It may be necessary to mention that "Keldale" is that dry valley which runs 
up from the Canil Gales to the HorK Coppice in the Leases- pasture. "CnAkTia or 
Cassandba de Estodley.— To ail sons of Holy Church, present and Co come, Cassan- 
dra de Estodtey, widow of John the Doorkeeper, sends greeting. Know ye that I, in 
my widowhood, and in my lawful right, have given, and by my present charter hive 
confirmed, Co God and the Monks of St. Mabv of Fountains, the whole land and 
whatever belongs to my fee in Escodley, in the whole parcel of arable which is called 
Swanley. Thai is to say by these boundaries : as the ditch begins at the Close of 
the Abbey of Fountains on the eastern part of Swanley, and goes to Keldale, and so by 
ihe edge of the valley of Keldale to the boun- 
daries of Aldfietd, and so by the boundaris of 
Aldfield on the western part of Swanley to the 
Close of the said Abbey: to inclose and do 
therein whatsoever chey may wish, as of their 
proper and perpetual possession. And I and my 
heire will warrant, acquit, and deftnd the whole 

hat land fbr the Church of Fountains, as 
out eleemosynary gift, discharged free and quit 
fi-om all services and charges relating Co the 

I. Moreover, I have given in my lawfijl 

it to the aforesaid Monks, ill the right and 

chise which I and my heirs and ancestors 

our lee in Malham, and especially an annual 

t-charge of four shillings, which the men 

hold the said land have been accustomed Co 

' to me and my ancestors; for the health of 
my soul, and that of all my ancestors and heirs. 
These being witnesses : Matthew the Clerk of 
Ripon, Nicholas de Cayton, Matthew the For- 
ester, and Robert his brother, Geolfrey de Merlt- 
ifiiield, Robert the Fowler, John de Cluderum." 



98 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



monastieries in the kingdom. The church ranked amongst the 
fairest structures of the land; and the possessions attached to it 
comprehended a vast extent, embracing the country from the 
foot of Pennigent to the boundaries of St. Wilfrid, of Ripon, 
an uninterrupted space of more than thirty miles. Besides 
many other wide domains, the lands in Craven contained, in a 
ring fence, a hundred square miles, or sixty thousand acres on 
a moderate computation." For a full account of the early 
history of Fountains Abbey and of the evidences out of which 
that history is drawn, we must refer our readers to the " Memo- 
rials of Fountains Abbey," a work of great information and 
research, which was prepared by Mr. Walbran for the Surtees 
Society. 

After obtaining a high reputation for sanctity and the posses- 
sion of great power and immense wealth, the Monastery was 
surrendered by deed, enrolled 26th November, 1539, ^7 Mar- 
maduke Bradley, the thirty-third abbat, and Suffragan Bishop 
of Hull ; a man who, by the character of " the wysyste monke 
within Inglonde of that cote, well lernede, and a welthie fel- 
lowe," was recommended to Cromwell by the visitors, Layton 
and Legh, to fill the office which abbat Thirsk, whom^ they 
thought "a varra fole, and a miserable ideote," had privately 
resigned into their hands. Bradley had then an annuity of 
100/., Thomas Kydde, the Prior, another of 8/., and the thirty 
monks who were priests, allowances of a similar nature, vary- 
ing in value from 6/. 135. 4^/. to 5/. each ; the whole amount- 
ing to 277/. 65. Sd, ; an acknowledgment, certainly liberal, of 
their interest in the estates of the abbey, which in 1535 had 
been certified to the Commissioners to be worth 998/. 6s. jjd. 
annually, including the tenths. These terms, however, from 
the changed value of money, the nature of tenures, and many 
other causes, have now become difficult of interpretation ; and 
a juster idea of the nature and extent of the establishment of 
the Convent may be formed from the fact, that, at the time of 
the dissolution, they possessed 1976 head of cattle, 1106 sheep, 
86 horses, and 79 swine. They had also stored in their granges 
at Sutton, Morker, Haddockstones, Swanley, and Brimham, 



'H THE FOONTAINS CKARTBRS. 

Alan de Audefeld. g. Walter s( 
A, Simon de Cludrum. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTIOK. 99 

117 quarters of wheat, 13 of rye, 134 of oats, and 192 loads 
of hay, besides the temporary provision of 160 loads of hay, 
and 128 quarters of corn, which they had in the park and 
granaries of the abbey. 

Whilst the king found it politic to promise the application of 
the revenues of some of the abbeys to their legitimate purpose 
of religion and education, the revenues of "Fontayne" and of 
the "archdeconry off Richmond" were assigned for the en- 
dowment of a bishopric of Lancaster ; but his evil genius pre- 
vailed, and on the 1st of October, 1540, he sold the site of the 
abbey, with its franchises, and the greater part of its estates, 
to Sir Richard Gresham, father of the munificent founder of 
the Royal Exchange. 

From Gresham's representatives, who had previously alien- 
ated the extensive estates in Craven, the site of the abbey, 
with its privileges, some of its adjacent granges, and a consider- 
able tract of land in Nidderdale, were sold, in 1597, to Sir 
Stephen Procter of Warsell, an ambitious and speculative char- 
acter, who pulled down the abbat's house and the minor offices 
of the abbey, to obtain materials for the noble mansion which 
he built near the west gate. His family having been burthened, 
after his decease, by his pecuniary embarrassment, the property 
was sold by his widow, in 1623, to Sir Timothy Whitingham, 
from whom it passed, two years afterwards, to Humphrey 
Wharton, Esq., of Gillingwood. From him it was purchased, 
in 1627, by Richard Ewens, of South Cowton, Esq., whose 
daughter and heiress carried it into the family of Messenger, of 
Newsham, who resided at Fountains Hall until John Michael 
Messenger, Esq., in 1768, sold the abbey, with its franchises 
and a small estate, for 18,000/., to William Aislabie, Esq., of 
Studley, maternal grandfather to Mrs. Lawrence, from whom 
it passed to the Earl de Grey, uncle of the present owner, 
the Marquess of Ripon. 

Before the excavation of the abbat's house — undertaken by 
the late Lord de Grey — a visitor approaching the abbey from 
the garden, was unable to see the greater part of the outside, 
before he was conducted through the interior of the building. 



100 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

This inconvenience has been very judiciously obviated by 
the direction of the path along the kitchen-bank on the 
south side, where, from its elevated position, hitherto buried in 
brushwood and rubbish, by far the most picturesque views of 
the building are not only obtained, but also a bird's-eye view or 
synoptical idea of the plan and relative position of the apart- 
ments, before proceeding to a particular survey. 

On leaving, therefore, Robin Hood's Well, and rising im- 
mediately above the recently discovered foundations of the 
abbat's house and the domestic offices of the abbey, we see 
the several parts of the conventual church. Lady chapel, choir, 
transept, tower, and nave, successively developed ; nearer us — 
and parallel with the south end of the transept — the chapter 
house, distinguished by the double tier of round-headed win- 
dows ; next, but placed in a contrary direction towards the 
river, comes the frater house. After that the kitchen, with 
its tall chimney, and the court house above. Then the refec- 
tory, with its graceful lancet lights ; then, receding to the 
cloister court, the buttery and its little garth ; and lastly, in 
connection with the main structure, the vast range of the dor- 
mitory above the cloisters, stretching nearly from our feet to 
the nave of the church. Turning in a contrary direction, we 
may observe, on the slope of the hill above, a part of the wall 
which bounded the site* of the monastery ; the intermediate 
broken ground having been chiefly occupied by the common 
Stable, Guests' Stable, Barns, Kilns, Tan-house, Bark-mill, 
Dove-cotes, Forge, and other similar offices. Of these, the 
Mill — to which large granaries were formerly annexed — is 
alone left entire, and will be observed immediately before us, 

* The walled Close of the Abbey, tobicA was a parish of itself ^ contained above eighty 
acres. Of these the site of the building, vnth its orchard, gardens, and several adjacent 
garths, occupied, at the dissolution, twelve acres on the north side of the Skell ; the 
rest, which lay on the south side, was divided into East Applegarth, in which was a 
fish-pond ; three West Appl^arths of twelve acres ; and the Kitchen-bank of three 
acres, covered with brushwood. But besides the Close, there was on its south-west side, a 
pleasant park of above two hundred acres, of which thebetter half was covered by woods 
and fish-ponds. It still retains its name, and, though divided into ^rms, much of iti 
ancient and picturesque character. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 101 

shrouded in tall trees, and running on merrily, as in days of 
yore. 

On a little knoll, above the mill, stands the remnant of the 
Yew Trees, that are said, by tradition, to have sheltered the 
monks before the erection of the abbey ; which, in some 
measure, they may be said to have survived. Their original 
number is forgot. From the appellation of "The Seven 
Sisters," by which the trees are always known, they may not 
have lately exceeded that number j though one of coeval anti- 
quity stands at the south end of the abbey-bridge, near the 
mill. Dr. Burton, writing in 1757, remembered seven trees, 
but remarked that one of them had been blown down a few 
years before. One, and the greater part of another, fell in the 
great gale of the 7th January, 1839. Since then more have 
succumbed to the fury of occasional tempests ; so that three 
or four are, in this year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-two, prostrate on the ground, and only two 
standing. These vegetate with astonishing vigour, and bear 
their accustomed supply of berries; though their giant stems 
are but mouldering skeletons. 

Candolle, deriving his information from Pennant, who stated 
that in 1770 one of them was 1214 Hgnes in diameter, sup- 
poses that they were then upwards of twelve centuries old ; 
but as we cannot ascertain when 
they ceased to expand, and the 
process of decomposition com- 
menced, this computation probably 
falls liir short of their actual age. 
The tortuosity of their rifted boles 
forbids an accurate measurement, 
but one of them is at least 25 feet 
in circumference. Bracket i Gale-houst. 

Immediately on crossing the Skell by a picturesque bridge, 
built in the thirteenth century, we come to the Gate-house, 
now reduced indeed to a mere fragment, but bearing, in the 
traces of the apartments on each side, abundant testimony of 
its former magnitude and importance. 



102 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

At this point, however brief the time at the visitor's disposal 
may be, he should turn aside a few paces to Fountains Hall. 
It stands at a very short distance from the abbey gate, on the 
side of a densely wooded and precipitous declivity, and was 
built by Sir Stephen Procter, of Warsell, in the time of King 
James I., at an expense of 3000/., although he ruthlessly quar- 
ried his stone from the walls of the abbey. Its venerable aspect, 
however, accords so well with the scenery, that it mitigates 
" the regret with which the antiquary would otherwise contem- 
plate so wide a scale of spoliation." The chief front sleeping 
in a summer's sun, with its picturesque gables and balcony, its 
statues, and glistening bay windows, is peculiarly imposing and 
beautiful. The arrangement of the principal apartments is still 
undisturbed ; but they contain nothing remarkable, except the 
dining room, which is hung with tapestry, representing the 
Rape of Proserpine, Jupiter and Ganymede, and Vulcan receiv- 
ing directions from Thetis about making armour for Achilles. 
In the hall also — now called the chapel— *is a sculpture over 
the fire-place, of the Judgment of Solomon, and in its great 
embayed window, the armorial bearings of the Procters and 
their connections, displayed in confused and fast fading glass. 
Over the chief entrance to the house are the crests of Sir 
Stephen Procter and his wife's father, and between them a 
motto, difficult of application, at least to Procter's secular con- 
dition : RiEN TROVANT GAINERAY TOVT. The Hall is not 
"shown" to visitors. 

The two gabled ruins, passed soon after entering what was 
formerly called the first court, appear to have been the Hospi- 
TIUM, which in the records of the abbey, is said to have been 
built by the abbat John de Cancia ; though, either fi-om the 
rule of the Order enjoining a severe character of architecture, 
or the inferior importance of the building, it displays none of the 
scientific progress that was rapidly developed in his time. In 
the basement story of the eastern house — 73 ft. long and 23 ft. 
wide, and vaulted from a row of five pillars — is an apartment 
which may have been the dining hall of the guests ; and in the 
upper apartments of each, a domestic character is indicated by 



THE -CONyENTUAL CHURCH. IO3 

fire-places, with flues curiously constructed in the gfcbles. 
To the east of these buildings stands a wall containing the 
chief doorway, and three upper windows of a structure built 
above the Skell, which may have been the Infirmary, erected 
also by John de Cancia, The other walls arc destroyed ; but 
on a recent excavation of such parts of the floor as had not 
fallen into the river, it was found to have had three aisles, divi- 
ded by four arches on each side. 



The main l^bric of the abbey now engages attention, and 
the West Cloister, being the nearest part of it, will perhaps, be 
first entered. It is not less than 300 feet in length, but was 
built at two diflerent periods ; the upper portion, extending 
from the nave of the church to the porter's lodge, being of the 
same transition Norman character, very curiously shown in the 
buttresses ; the rest forms the ambulatory, or *"■ Novum Claus- 
irum" built by John de Cancia. Along the outside of the 
upper part, which was once divided into store-houses, has been 
a pent-house, communicating like the cloister, by a large and 
handsome doorway with the church. 

Above the cloister, and extending its whole length, was the 
Monks' Dormitory, divided into forty cells by wooden par- 
titions, which left a passage down the middle, lighted by a large 



104 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



window at the south end, and, at night, by a great cresset or 
lamp. At the south-west corner are the walls of two spacious 
gard-robes, communicating with the dormitory, and placed con- 
veniently above the river. The dormitory is still approached 
by spacious and original stairs winding over the porter's lodge ; 
and by another staircase at the northern extremity, by which 
the monks descended to their nocturnal offices in the church. 



THE CONVENTUAL CHURCH. 



Before we proceed to examine the church, it will be proper 
to state that the whole of its floor was excavated, or cleared 
of rubbish, during the winter of 1854. The general result is, 
that, though as regatds the mere discovery of relics, or specu- 
lative objects of curiosity, the work has not entirely fulfilled 
the anticipations of those who had eagerly entertained them ; 
yet many important &cts, general and local, have been, both 
directly and inferentially elicited, and the architectural and pic- 
turesque appearance of the building has been amplified and 
improved to such a high degree, that, to any one who has not 
since visited it, any description would seem exaggerated. The 
accumulation of rubbish varied in depth from little more than 
twelve inches, in the middle of the choir, to that of three feet 
in the nave. The whole mass appeared to have been disturbed, 
probably during Mr. Aislabie*s ''improvements," in the last 
century ; so that, unfortunately, whatever fragmentary objects 
were found among it, could not be generally assigned to their 
original positions. There needed not, indeed, such an intrusion 
to disturb the last vestiges of evidence that might have been 
left; for the work had not proceeded far, before it became 
evident that, on the dissolution of the house, its spoliation had 
been conducted with no ordinary wantoness or avarice. The 
stalls, screens, and other wooden fittings, had, apparently, been 
used, as we know was the case at Roche abbey, to make fires 
for melting the lead of the roofs ; for, here and there were found, 
within the walls, heaps of ashes — nay, in the nave, part of the 



THE KAVE. 



105 



furnace where the operation had been conducted. All the 
glass had been removed from the windows, so that not more 
than a handful has been found. The large slabs had been torn 
from the graves and removed ; nearly the whole of the tiled 
floor had been taken up ; even the very graves had been ran- 
sacked in search of valuables, if we may judge from the con- 
dition of those that were accidentally observed, and the indis- 
criminate mingling of bones with the rubbish. 

It will astonish those who have viewed the familiar face of 
the west end of the nave in a picturesque rather than in an 
architectural point of view, to find that throughout its whole 
facade, and at a period not very long after its erection, a porch 
or "Galilee," with a double open arcade in front, and of the 
width of fifteen feet, has been added, probably by abbat 
Robert de Pipewell, and also repaired in the succeeding cen- 
tury. It seems, like similar porches elsewhere, to have been 
preferred as a place of burial ; since there were found within 
it six graves covered by large ornamented slabs. Of the 
four to be seen, at the south end, nothing is to be particularly 
observed, except the mode in which the graves are united; 
but, in the opposite extremity, is a remarkably fine .and perfect 
slab — still fixed by heavy leaden clamps to the coffin — which 
bears the device of a processional cross of the latter half of the 
twelfth century. 

There was found, also, within this unexpected appendage to 
the church, a large image of the Blessed Virgin, "with her 
Almighty infant in her arms," that had been thrown down 
from the niche that it occupied above the great western win- 
dow. Both figures are headless, and there is little in the com- 
position to attract admiration. The late Lord de Grey restored 
this mutilated figure to its ancient niche, 27th of June, 1859. 

THE NAVE. 



The nave — a good plain example of the Transition Norman 
period — exhibits only, on each side, both of the clerestory and 
the aisles, a succession of eleven bays, divided by broad and 



I06 FOUNTAINS ABB£Y. 

shallow pilasters, and occupied by as many round-headed lights 
without shaft or moulding. On entering at the great western 
door, the effect is exceedingly solemn and impressive : the 
pointed arcade, resting on massive columns 23 feet high and 16 
feet in circumference, without the relief of a triforium inter- 
vening between them and the plain splayed windows above. 
The great west window was introduced by abbat Darnton, in 
the place of two or three plain Norman lights, surmounted 
probably by a round one in the gable ; and has a gallery in the 
base, whence processions might be viewed. Above, on the out- 
side of this window is the niche occupied by the headless figure 
of the Virgin before described. This niche is supported by 
the figure of an eagle, holding a crozier, and perched on a tun, 
from which issues a label inscribed "dern 1494." The eagle 
is the symbol of St. John, and is meant to signify the Christian 
name of Darnton. 

Each bay of the aisles has been covered by a pointed but 
transverse vault, divided by semi-circular arches, of which the 
imposts are placed considerably lower than those of the pillars 
to which they are attached. Nearly the whole of the eastern 
half of these aisles has been divided by lattices into chapels, of 
which there are some indications in the painted devices and 
matrices of their furniture, traceable on the piers. There has 
been, also, a wooden screen across the nave at the seventh 
pillar eastward. 

Shortly after its very fragmentary foundation was cleared, an 
arrangement was discovered, on the transept side of it, not 
more unusual than inexplicable ; for, on each side of its pro- 
cessional passage are to be seen two walled spaces of the form 
of the Roman capital letter L, and of the size represented on 
the plan (Nos. i and 2) depressed about two feet below the 
level of the floor. In that on the south side nothing was then 
discovered, but, in the other, a mass of charcoal ashes ; and 
thoroughly imbedded in its west and north sides, nine large 
vases of rude earthenware, each capable of containing nearly 
two fluid gallons, and also partially filled with charcoal. These 
ashes have, no doubt, been cast here from the adjacent furnace, 



c. 



THE NAVE. 



107 



where the lead stripped from the church had been evidently 
melted into a marketable shape at the time of the dissolution ; 
but, why the vases should have been introduced, is, so far as I 
can learn from anything that has been observed in English 
architecture, unaccountable. The most probable supposition 
seems to be that they were acoustic instruments^ intended to in- 
crease the sound of an organ placed on the screen above ; inas- 
much as Vitruvius, when speaking of " the vases of the 
theatres," in the fifth chapter of his fifth book on architecture, 
observes, that it was the practice in constructing some of the 
provincial theatres of Italy, to insert earthen vessels within the 
seats, where brass vases could not be afforded, for the express 
purpose of augmenting sound.* 











H^2 


u. 


u 

-J 

< 


Ntl 


1 








1 
J 






u 








Q 




Besides these vases, and the bases of three altars attached to 
the pillars, no particular objects of interest were observed in the 
nave ; except that towards the west end, two blocks of lime- 
stone, each two feet three inches square, with a circle incised 

* This conjecture, which seems to be the correct one, has been elaborated and still 
further verified by Mr. Fowler, in a paper read at Fountains abbey, in August, 1872, 
from which these facts may be summarized. 

Indubitable evidence is now collected to shew, that both in England and on the Con- 
tinent, earthenware pots were built into the walls of monasteries and churches with the 
intention of improving the sound. In 1842 a number of horn-shaped vessels were 
found in the church of S. Blaize, at Aries, and caused much discussion in France. In 
1 861, M. Mandelgren, a Swedish antiquary, reported that he had found a great number 
of churches in Norway and Sweden fitted up with earthen jars whose mouths opened 
into the church or vault in which they were placed. In the same year M. Stassof, a 
Russian archaeoio^st, stated that these pots and jars were common in Byzantine churches. 
In 1862 M. Bouteiller, of Metz, published his memoir of the Celestine monastery 
there. Amongst other extracts fi^m that chronicle, there is one giving a positive account 
M 



I08 FOUKTAIKS ABBEY. 

on the surface, were found inserted in the floor ; which led to 
a more particular examination— -ending in the discovery of fifty 
of similar character, occupying the space, and arranged in the 
form expressed on the plan. They marked the positions 
observed by members of the convent, before they moved in 
procession, on high days, to meet their patrons or benefactors — 
the cross-bearer standing first ; and the abbat, in front of the 
entrance, last. The faces of the greater number of the stones 
were, however, so much crumbled and decayed that, with the 
exception of those which occasioned the disclosure of the rest, it 
was thought expedient to allow the turf to remain above them. 



THE TRANSEPT. 

The transept was built in the same transitional period of archi- 
tecture as the nave, but manifests so little of a progressive or 

of the placing of a scries of pots in 1432, of which the following is a trafnsladon : — 
'< In the year aforesaid, in the month of August, on the vigil of the assumption of our 
lady, after that brother Odo le Roy, our prior, had returned from the general chapter 
above named, he made and ordered to put pots into the choir of the church, declaring 
that he had seen (this done) elsewhere in some church, and thinking that it would 
make the singing better, and that it would resound the stronger. And these were fixed 
in one day by as many workmen as sufficed. But I do not know that they sing any 
better than they did. And it b certain that the walls were greatly torn to pieces and 
shaken \ and many who come to us are very much astonished at what is done there. And 
they have sometimes said that it would be better if they were now outside, declaring 
that they verily thought the pots had been put there to catch and take in fools.** 
Examples are also found in Normandy. A satirical work of the seventeenth century, 
published at Rouen, states that, *• Of the fifty choristers that the public maintain in 
such a house, there will not sometimes be more than six present at the office \ the 
choirs are fitted with pots in a vault, and in the walls, so that half a dozen voices there 
make as much noise as forty elsewhere.** Further research has brought to light speci- 
mens in various English churches. Of these^ S. Peter*s, Norwich, and S. Peter*s, 
Upton, may be cited as examples where the vessels occur in situ. In Ireland acoustic 
pottery is also found. 

The conclusion seems natural and plain that they were not ** for stores of some kind ; " 
nor ** for dovecotes} ** nor " for holding refics j ** nor " to burn incense in j** nor **fbr 
warming the hands of officials j '* nor for " cinerary urns j ** nor " to receive the ashes 
of the heart ; ** as was at first by some conjectured, but really an attempt to improve 
the effect of the services of the church — ^in short, an experiment which was abandoned 
in consequence of its unsatisfactory result. 



THE TRANSEPT. 



109 



pointed character, that it might have been considered, particularly 
outside, as pure Norman. At its intersection with the nave was 
originally a tower, though elevated probably not more than one 
of its squares above the roof. All trace of it, however, is now 
lost, except fragments of its arches, which have been pointed 
and moulded, at the south-east and north-west angles. It was 
probably the insecure condition of this tower — incapable of 
such considerable improvement as, unfortunately, was effected 
at Kirkstall — ^which lead to the erection of the present magni- 
ficent substitute ; since abbat Huby was obliged to disfigure 
the transept by the erection of a massive buttress against 
its south-east pier, and also to construct an arch under that of 
the adjacent aisle of the choir. The corbels of its hood mould- 
ings display on shields, three horse shoes — the arms of the 
abbey — and his initials, M. H., surmounted by a mitre enfUed 
by a crosier. 

Two melancholy chapels, divided by a thick wall and covered 
with a barrel, but pointed, vault, abut on the east side of each 
wing of the transept, and occupy a space, which, if we may 
judge from the like arrangement at Kirkstall, would not have 
been transformed into the less monastic form of aisles, even at 
a more advanced architectural period. Their gloomy character 
has also been increased, at the north end, by walling up the 
arches of the transept in order to give increased stability to the 
new tower. In the chapel that adjoins it — dedicated, it appears 
from a mouldering inscription, to St. Peter — there was placed 
within recollection, under a broken monumental ^ch in the 
north wall, the effigy of a cross-legged warrior in chain-mail, 
bearing a shield, charged with a lion rampant, and said by tra- 
dition to represent the great baron Roger de Mowbray, who 
died at Ghent in 1298, and was buried in this church. This 
effigy was removed into the abbey museum, over the great 
kitchen, on Monday, August i6th, 1858. 

The dedication of the next chapel is shewn to have been to 
St. Michael the Archangel, by a weather-beaten inscription 
over its entrance : altare s'ci michaelis arch'. In its 
south wall — part of the original or first choir — is a large round- 



no FOUNTAIKS ABBEY. 

headed piscina, with a recess or locker in the side ; and, at the 
east end, some fragments of the stone altar and of a geometrical 
pavement mav be observed. 

The south chapels have been partitioned, by lattices, from 
the transept ; and that adjoining the choir has gained an en- 
trance also from its aisle, in the perpendicular period, when it 
was also briefly elongated and improved by the insertion of a. 
large east window. The piscina has been of wood. 

The next and last chapel has been but recently cleared of 
the rubbish of its vault, which was re-set with most rigid atten- 
tion to the original work. Sufficient indications of the tesse- 
lated pavement were found, during the excavation, to shew- 
that it had been of John de Cancia's time, as indeed may be 
inferred from the fragments of the border attached to the wall ; 
if such are still allowed to remain. Within the mutilated piscina 



— large and round-headed like that in the north chapel — there 
was placed some years ago a large sculptured tablet, represent- 
ing the Annunciation of the Virgin. It is rude and late in style, 
but the conventional expression is worthy of observation. The 
inscription is the salutation of Gabriel, AVE MARIA [gr'a] plena 
d'n's tecu'. It is now amongst the relics in the abbey museum. 



THE TRANSEPT. Ill 

Near the entrance of this chapel is, also, placed part of the 
monumental slab of one of the abbats. In its present incon- 
venient position, is is difficult to decipher the worn and muti- 
lated circumscription ; but from the occurrence of the word 
ROBERTUS, in the place where the name of the abbat might be 
expected, and the character of the design, I presume, it has 
commemorated Robert Burley, thtf twenty-fourth abbat, who 
died on the 13th of May, 1410. 



The MS. chronicle of the abbats of the house induced me, 
when the floor was cleared, to hope for some curious memorials 
of them in the transept. With the exception, however, of 
two slabs, the floor presented only a hopeless blank. One of 
these slabs will be found at the angle of the transept joining 
the north aisle of the nave, but it is uninscribed. Its position, 
receding so humbly from the east, is somewhat singular, and if 
it really can be shown that abbat Thirsk was interred at Foun- 
uins, after his execution at Tyburn, fency may suggest to some 
that he rests below. 



112 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

The Other slab is in the south wing, but the broken circum- 
scription tell us nothing more than that it thus records " Bro- 
ther John de Ripon : " 

ora[t£ pro aJi'a fr'is joh'is kypon HUl* CD 

QUONDa' HIC IACET - CUl' A*I'AM Lie X...[Po]ssiD£AT 

AME' • OBIJT n....M'cij....4. 

From the character of the 
letter, he seems, however, to 
have been an inmate of the 
house long after the time of 
abhat Ripon. His grave had 
been ransacked, the bones 
being found in a disturbed 
position, as they were also in 
another grave on the north- 
east side of it. 

At the south end of the tran- 
sept, and below the sacristy, 
has been originally a passage 
from the cloister court to the 
burial garth, south of the 
choir ; the extremities of 
which had been closed not 
long before the Dissolution. 
In clearing it out, a mass of 
human bones, representing 
about four hundred skeletons, 
awtmr was found in comparatively 

ToMBETom or joKB DE RipoH. modcm Tubbish. They were 

in a rapid state of decomposition ; and were committed for the last 
time to their kindred dust, on the day when they were found, 
to a grave prepared for *' this little city of the forgotten," at the 
west end of the church, opposite to the entrance of the dormitory. 
Abutting on the west side of the south wing of the transept 
is to be seen the foundation of a staircase leading to the sacristy, 
which occupies the space above this passage. In it is a tine 
round-headed lavatory of the transitional Norman period. Near 



THE TOWER. 



113 



the foot of the staircase — but in the nave — is the base of an 
Early English stoup, whose very elegant basin is now in the 
abbey museum — it having for many years served for the font 
in the adjacent chapel of Aldfield. 



THE TOWER. 

This majestic and scientific specimen of the perpendicular 
style is placed at the end of the north transept, since its intro- 
duction could not have been conveniently effected on the site 
of the old tower ; and, at the west end of the nave, it would 
not have grouped so effectively with the chief buildings of the 
monastery. It is composed in a grand and bold outline, un- 
frittered by minute detail, or elaborate decoration. The height 
is 168 feet 6 inches, and the internal area of the base about 25 
feet. With the exception of the floors of the several chambers, 
pinnacles, glass, and the tracery of a single window, which fell 
out many years ago, the goodly structure remains as perfect, 
sound, and stable, as when the builders left it ; and, for any- 
thing that appears to the contrary, will rear its noble head above 
the dell, and defy the storm, when many proud structures of 
to-day shall have crumbled to their bases. On fillets above and 
below the belfry windows are inscriptions in the Tudor black 
letter, boldly relieved, and also round the top of the tower ; 
but this latter series is so weather-beaten as to be illegible. 

On the east side. — benediccio et caritas et sapiencia 

[l] et [2] GRACIARUM ACCIO HONOR. 

SOLI DEO i'HU x'P0[3] HONOR [4] ET GL'iA IN S*CLA s'CLOR. 

North side, — ET VlRTUS ET FORTITUDO DEO NOSTRO [5] IN 
[6] SECULA SECULORUM AMEN. 

SOLI DEO I'hU x'pO HONOR ET OL'iA IN s'CLA s'CLOR AME*. 

West side. — Regi autem seculorum [7 8] immortali 
invisili. 
Soli dec i'hu x'po honor et [9] gl'ia [10] in s'cla 

s'CLOR. 

South side. — soli deo honor et gloria [11] in [12] secula 

SECULORUM AMEN. 



114 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

The numerals introduced into this copy indicate the corres- 
ponding position of armorial shields in the inscriptions, thus 
charged : — i, Three horse shoes, two and one, the arms of 
the abbey; 2, a maunch, surmounted by a bend, Norton of 
Norton Conyers, and Sawley ; 3, a cross flory, between a 
mitre and key erect, in chief, and a key erect and mitre, in 
base ; 4, the arms of the abbey, as the first ; 5 and 6, Norton, 
as before ; 7 and 8, the abbey and Norton ; 9, as the third ; 
10 and II, the abbey; 12, Norton ; and individually, perhaps. 
Sir John Norton, grandfather to old Richard, the memorable 
promoter of the " Rising in the North." 

Above the lowest window is an angel standing on the canopy 
of a vacant niche, holding a shield, on which is carved a mitre 
enfiled with a crosier, and the letters M.H., the initials of 
Marmaduke Huby. In a niche on the north side is a crowned 
female figure holding a palm-branch in her right, and a book in 
her left hand ; in another above is a mitred figure, probably 
archbishop Savage, holding a crosier ; and in one above the 
ridge of the transept roof, a gowned effigy, no doubt of his 
friend Huby, holding a crosier in his right, and a book in his 
left hand. 

During the excavation of 1854-5, when the whole of the 
exterior of the north side of the church was cleared, it was 
discovered, from a wall a little in advance of the east side of xhe 
tower, that an addition had been made in the decorated period, 
to the end of the north transept. The building has been at 
least 19 feet wide, with a doorway to the east ; and has had a 
vaulted roof, of which two of the springers remain a few inches 
only above the level of the floor. 

THE CHOIR. 

The present choir was begun in the early part of the r3th 
century, by John de Eboraco, the eighth abbat. It took the 
place of the Norman choir, which was smaller and less con- 
spicuous. The outer walls of the aisles of the present structure 
are of elegant and powerful design. Each bay contains, indeed, 



D. VlM Tavir. 
F.'Tlw Oholi. 
H. OofitH' 0«Bi. 



K. €)ikpt«r B 
Jl.Punga. 



V. Oudrobsi. 
. I. HIU Btldga, 



THE AeaOTs BUILPINUB 



i. Tbs OrHl ^11. 




THE CHOIR. 



"5 



only one plain lancet light, but as it is placed in the interior, 
under arf arcade of one pointed, between two round-headed 
members, a remarkable effect is produced by the archivolt of its 
adjuncts ; which, resting one extremity on the single columns 
flanking the light ; descend oh the opposite side, with the curve 
of the groining, to a shaft, capped at an inferior elevation, and 
clustered with that which has carried the ribs of the vault. A 
very appropriate and picturesque effect is contributed also by 
the deeply recessed and trifoliated arcade which supports this 
arrangement, though it is now much diminished by the absence 
of its grey marble shafts. 

The excavation of the choir developed little or nothing that 
had not previously been ascertained. Its floor, raised two steps 
above the aisles, had been totally removed, together with all its 
sepulchral slabs. The pillars supporting the clerestory had been, 
with the exception of two fragmentary bases, not only torn down 
to the ground, but to the very foundations ; and in Mr. Aislabie's 
'' improvements," in the last century, the rubbish had been so 
much disturbed that little of the detail of the superstructure 
could be satisfactorily inferred. It must be observed, however, 
that the foundation of the original aisleless choir, like that of 
Kirkstall, was discovered immediately below the level of the 
floor, as it was left upwards of six hundred and fifty years ago 
by John de Eboraco, the builder of the present structure, to- 
gether with those of the two side chapels which he included in 
his work. The inner and outer surfaces of the wall are now 
indicated on the turf by corresponding lines of thin flag-stones, 
and also shewn on the ground plan. 

When the work reached the west end of the choir, it was 
found that the screen had been torn down to the ground. It 
had been of limestone, and no doubt the work of abbat Huby, 
when he fortified the eastern side of the old central tower, 
as an ornamental combination of the emblems of oflice, and 
his initials are preserved on a detached slab, now in the museum, 
which has probably had some connection with this screen. 
Of its general outline no idea can be formed, as very few 
fragments wfere found that could reasonably be supposed to have 



Il6 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

formed a portion of it. Within its porch was re- discovered 
that magnificent sepulchral slab of blue marble — 9 feet 6 inches 
long, and 4 feet 8 inches wide, and 7 inches thick — the distur- 
bance of which in 1841 caused the cessation of the excavation 
commenced by Mrs. Lawrence. 
The design represented in graven 
brass, as will readily be observed, 
the figure of a mitred abbat, under 
a canopy, holding his pastoral stafF 
in his right hand ; and, no doubt, 
covered the abbat John de Ripon, 
who died at the abbey grange of 
Thorpe Underwood, on the 12th 
of March, 1434., and is said, in a 
record of the monastery, to have 
been buried before the entrance to 
the choir. The label around, of 
which the circular corner pieces 
had, perhaps, symbolical figures of 
the Evangelists, contained the in- 
scription. There is, of course, no 
trace of the brass, but the rivets 
by which the plates were fixed to 
TouuTOMi or AMAT RiroN. thc groovcd stonc still remain, 
with the incised passages to them 
by which the solder was introduced. 

The tesselated pavement of the high altar is doubtless part of 
the "pictum pavimtntum " that was bestowed on the church by 
abbat John de Cancia between the years 1219 and 1247 ; and, 
therefore, an early and valuable example of this elegant mode 
of decoration. The simple patterns, divided in thc upper and 
chief platform into three chief compartments, are formed of 
many-shaped tesserie of red, black, and yellow, which have been 
recently relaid, with proper attention to the original design. 

The rcredos behind the high altar presented, both to the choir 
and lady chapel, a continuation — prolonged also for one bay 
or more on each side — of that beautiful arcade which circum- 



THE LADY CHAPEL. 



117 



scribes the lady chapel and the choir; yet, part of its materials 
are now in a modern and obtrusive gallery under the east window, 
and more of it will be found in other parts of the abbey. 

Not far from the north-west corner of the altar is a stone 
coffin, 6 feet 3 inches long, which is usually said to have con- 
tained the remains of Henry, Lord Percy, of Alnwick, who 
died in 13 15. As, however, the herald Tong, who learned on 
his visit to the abbey, in 153P, that he was buried " before the 
high auter," observed that " also in the quere lyeth buried the 
Lord Mowbray," it is as probable that the coffin was covered 
by the effigy of Mowbray, now in the abjbey museum 5 more 
particularly as it is remembered to have stood against the wall 
opposite to it. 

THE LADY CHAPEL, OR NINE ALTARS. 

This most beautiful portion of the abbey church was com- 
pleted by abbat John de Cancia, who had superintended, 
probably the greater part, if not the whole, of its erection. 
'' This addition to ecclesiastical structures, though not common, 
is productive of great ma8;nificence, for the eastern facade 
thus formed here extends 150 feet in length, and presents 
a specimen of Early English architecture — plain and somewhat 
massive in its general appearance, but with many well propor- 
tioned details. Some additions which have been made to this 
portion of the abbey are, however, as late as the end of the 
fifteenth century. The great east window and appurtenant 
buttresses display the magnificence of the latest style of Gothic 
architecture, which, guided by judgment and taste, are com- 
bined with the earlier style of the adjoining portions of the 
building." It had nine lights and a transom, but exhibits now 
a void space of 60 feet in height, and 23 feet 4 inches in width. 
The other and original windows of this front are adorned, out- 
side and in the lower range, with banded shafts, and divided 
by semi-octangular and massive buttresses. 

Besides the east window, one of large dimensions but plain 
detail has been inserted, at the same period, in each gable of the 



Il8 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

lady chapel, in the place of the original wheel windows. Below 
that in the southern elevation, the keystone of one of the three 
Early English lights has received a sculpture which shows these 
innovations to have been made in the time of abbat Darnton, 
who presided over the house from 1478 to 1494. It is, 
indeed, a rebus on his name ; displaying the bust of an angel 
holding a tun, with the word dern inscribed on its breast. 
Above this is a large bird, apparently an eagle — as seen before 
above the nave — and a scroll which bears the same allusive 
character in its legend, b*n*d* pontes d'no {Benedicite 
fontes domino). In the inside of the chapel, the same key- 
stone bears an angel holding a blank shield, a mitred head, 
and the figure of St. James of Compostella, standing on two 
encircled fishes. The keystone of another lancet light, at 
the north-east angle, displays a human head entwined with 
foliage ; and in the interior, the figure of an angel, holding a 
scroll, inscribed anno domini 1483. 

On receding to either end of the lady chapel, the amplitude of 
its dimensions, the graceful, aspiring, heavenward tendency of 
its component parts must captivate and astonish even a vulgar 
or careless mind. Not a little of its peculiar effect results from 
those lofty arches which span it in prolongation of the clerestory 
of the choir, sustained only by an octagonal pillar, 2 feet 5 inches 
in diameter. But much of the original effect is lost by the 
destruction of the marble shafts that enriched the angles, and 
were banded midway in the elevation. 

In this chapel, nine altars were instituted by John de Cancia, 
but none of their particular dedications have, as yet, been ascer- 
tained. During the excavation, portions of six of these altars 
were discovered ; but, with the exception of two, much broken 
down, and all without their covering slabs. The piscinae of 
two that were inserted in the floor, will be found in the museum 
above the abbey kitchen ; and, on the walls, several indications 
of such as have been of wood ; and one, nearly perfect, and a 
curious example in stone. The pavement of the chapel had 
been entirely removed, with the exception of some plain inserted 
Tudor work near the outer doors. If an opinion can be based 



THE CLOISTER COURT. 



119 



on the very trifling scraps of stained glass that were found here, 
some or all of the windows had retained a portion of their original 
decoration to the last. Of the immense quantity that had filled 
the great east window, it is strange to say that not one particle 
was observed. As, however, at the time of the Reformation, 
even plain glass was so costly, that it was generally placed in 
wooden frames, and removed from the windows of domestic 
buildings when the apartments were not in use or occupation, 
and this window had not then been erected fifty years, it is very 
probable that this, and the rest of the glass that was marketable, 
was at once removed and sold. 



THE CLOISTER COURT. 

From a door at the south-east angle of the nave, a few steps 
descend to a quadrangular court, formerly environed with a pent- 
house or cloister, of which a portion of the round-headed arcade 
remained in the last century. Part of the foundation wall has 
recently been discovered, and also a base of masonry in the centre 
of the quadrangle, that now again supports the lavatory, which, 
previous to June, 1859, ^^ ^^ ^^^ cloister. This lavatory 
there is good reason to suppose, was removed from this, its 
original position, by Mr. Messenger, who used it as a crab or 
cider mill. 

The north and west aisles of this court were occupied, 1 
believe, by the carols where the monks studied, and the place 
where the novices were taught : the others must, necessarily, 
have been used as passages. 

The area of the court — about 128 feet square — is still sur- 
rounded by the buildings of the monastery. The north side is 
formed by the lofty walls of the church. On the west, the 
cloisters, surmounted by the dormitory, stretch in one unbroken 
line. The buttery, refectory, and kitchen flank the southeriv 
range 5 and on the east, the portals of the chapter-house join 
the south transept, which still, by its massive strength, retains 
its original elevation. 

In front of the chapter-house several graves were discovered 
in the winter of 1856. The bottom of a wooden coffin was 



120 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



also found, and a few sepulchral slabs much broken ; but none 
were inscribed except the shattered fragments of one which has 
borne a circumscription in raised letters, which date about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

THE CHAPTER HOUSE. 

The chapter house, divided by the sacristy from the north 
transept, is of a date between it and the Early English choir, 
but bears no local assimilation of style to any contemporary 
building of the abbey. It is, indeed, I apprehend, judging from 
certain peculiarities of style and the magnificence of its dimen- 
sions, the work of Richard, the fourth abbat, who had been 
previously prior of Clarevaux, in France, and may have brought 
or procured the design from that great head of the Cistercian 
houses. In size it is little inferior to any rectangular chapter 
house in this kingdom, being 84 feet 7 inches long, by 41 feet 
wide ; though a vestibule of inferior height, formed by the 
intervention of a wooden screen, h^ occupied 24 feet of the 
western extremity. The ten round marble columns that divided 
the area into three aisles, have been ruined to their bases ; but 
the .triple tier of benches, used by the convent in their deliber- 
ations, still remain. 

From the decease of abbat Richard, in 11 70, to that of Cop- 
grove in 1345, the chapter-house was the invariable burial place 
of the abbats, except of John the ninth abbat and Eston, who 
died elsewhere ; and, during that period, nineteen of them were 
interred here. These facts, partially communicated by Dr. 
Burton, in his " Monasticon," from a president-book of the 
abbey, led, in 1790, to the excavation of the apartment, when 
the following evidence of their particular graves was obtained. 

Within the last bay eastward are four coffins, laid side by side, 
that most probably have contained the remains of abbat Richard 
Fastolph and his three immediate successors. Two of them 
have lost their proper slabs ; the coverof another is uninscribed ; 
and that of the last indicates only in the sacred emblem ifi incised 
on its head, that it covers one who preferred the expression of 
his dying faith to the remembrance or gratitude of posterity. 









THE CHAPTER HOUSE. 121 

At their feet, and immediately below the seat where he so 
long and worthily presided, is this memorial of the great abbat, 
John de Cancia,!Vho died November 25th, 1247^ inscribed in 
Longobardic characters, on a ridged slab of grey marble : — 

H'RE(yESCIT: DOMPNVS ■ JOh's ■ X : AbBAS ■ D£ FONTlbv.' 
QVJ ■ OBIJT • vri KL • DECEMBRIS. 

Close by its south side is a slab 
of similar character, but somewhat 
humbier dimensions, on which the 
following inscription is said to have 
appeared on its discovery ; though in 
consequence of the heedless steps of 
visitors, such parts of it only as are 
inclosed by brackets can now be de- 
ciphered : — 

[■i" hi]. RE(y[ESClT DOMPNVs] 

joH'e x[ir ABBAS DE fontib' <y : 
obijt] 

This reading was, however, cer- 
tainly erroneous ; since, according to 
the enumeration used on the adjacent 
stone, supported by the records of the 
abbey, William Allerton was the 
twelfth abbat — and imperfect also, by 
the supplementary words " qui obiit," 
still visible. A recent minute exami- 
nation hat proved that it commemo- 
rates the said abbat Allerton. 

A plain ridged gravestone on the 
south of the last, covers, I apprehend, 
John de Ebor, the eighth abbat, who 
died June 14th, 1211. 

On four detached fragments, which 
have fonned part of the tomb of the 
thirteenth abbat, who died April 30th, 
1259, are the words, 

ADAM • XIII • ABBAS. TomsTOH. or jo«N Di canca. 



122 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

Near the middle of the room is a flat Stone, from which, 
though now much shattered, has been rescued the following 
fragment — 

lES S REG S TES OCTO 

a portion, perhaps, of the memorial of Reginald, the iifteenth 

abbat, who died October 27th, 1274. 

Beside this, is a small marble slab, which, though much 

broken, retains the matrix of a figure that has held a crosier, 

and of a circumscription with corner pieces. 

On the opposite side of the aisle is a stone that has had a 

similar design ; but so worn that the head of the crosier can 

only be distinctly traced. Here is also a fragment of another 

memorial of the same date, and part of a plain ridged stone of 

the thirteenth century. 

The slab near the entrance may be placed over abbat Otley, 

who died 24th Dec., 1290 ; though he is said, more particularly, 

to have been buried " in hostio ca' de Fontibus," 

Above the chapter- ho use, were the Library and Scriptorium, 

with other apartments, the extent of which is indicated on the 

outside of the south transept, which they joined, and from which 

they were approached. 

The notes of Leland, who saw the Library just before the 
lissolution, do not suggest the idea that it was of that impoit- 
icc that was demanded, at least by the wealth and high position 
r the house,* Several of its members in the first century after 
s foundation were learned men, and authors of considerable 
:putation;f but in after days, though several of the abbtas were 
assessed of high intellectual attainments, the general literary 
laracter of the house was insufficiently maintained. The 
cetches engraved on the following page, selected at random 
om a book written in this Scriptorium, may shew, however, 
lat it was occasionally tenanted by men not wholly deficient in 
ircastjc and graphic power of expression. The middle figure 
that of a knight who had a law-suit with the convent. 

■ Collectanea, toI. iii. pp. 44, 4;. 
f See Leland de Scripc, vol. i, pp. xji, 135, 14J, Piaeus de Rebus Angl. vol. i, 
>. 116-117. Bale, Script. Illim., c. ii, p. 198. 



THE FRATER HOUSE. llj 

South of the chapter house is a groined passage, of the same 
date, leading to the base court, and the alley or cloister commu- 
nicating with the abbat's house- 
Next and last, in the eastern rangs of the cloister, and 
entered by a doorway which still bears traces of painted enrich- 
ments on its Early English mouldings, is the Frater House, a 
fine vaulted apartment of transition Norman work, I0+ feet long, 



and 29 feet wide. From the upper end, which extends to the 
river is a communication on the east side with the Cellar, of 
the ample dimensions of 59 ft, by 18 ft., beyond which was the 
Brewhouse, 30 ft. by 18 ft. Before the walls of these buildings 
were pulled down to the present level, about eighty years ago, 
Dr. Burton's plan indicates what, apparently, was the site of 



124 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

the great boiler in the massive partition wall ; and on its recent 
excavation, the ruined sur&ce bore marks of subjection to intense 
heat. For the advantages of drainage and refrigeration, one 
side of these places was built on arches above the river, which, 
ultimately seems to have endangered the stability of the eastern 
end.* 

From the south-east angle of the cloister court, a spacious 
staircase, recently cleared out and repaired, leads to the court 
house, or, as it is called in the records of the abbey, " The 
Hall of Pleas," — an interesting apartment 42^ by 22| feet, 
groined to a central pillar without base or capital. The court 
of the Liberty t of Fountains — a large and privileged district — 
was held here until a period within recollection, when, in com- 
pliance with modern habits and associations, it was transferred 
to Fountains Hall. The compartment at the upper end, where 
the seneschal and his officers sat, is shewn by the grooves of 
the cancelli or bars by which they were enclosed, in the central 
pillar. 

The apartment over the court house, now nearly ruined, may 
have been the place where the records and muniments of the 
abbey were deposited, if the room above the gatehouse was not 
appropriated to that purpose. 

The accumulation of relics that had been discovered during 
the progress of the excavation since 1848, having become so 
numerous that they could not be conveniently viewed by visi- 
tors, the court house was fitted up for their reception in 1855. 

♦'Under the arch at the eastern extremity of this water-course, was fbund/during 
the recent excavation, a hoard of silver money, consisting of 354 pieces, generally io 
excellent preservation, ranging in date from the reign of Philip and Mary to that of 
Charles the First ; a few clipped pieces being Spanish coin. They were laid, at the 
depth only of a foot, on a piece of slate, and were doubtless committed to this par- 
ticular place by an inhabitant of the adjacent country who had been slain suddenly 
during tlie Great Rebellion j for it was easy to be identified by any one who shared the 
secret. 

•f" Within the recollection of an aged person not long since deceased, a week often 

elapsed before the dispersion of the Jurors at the Liberty Court held in the abbey at 

Fountains. Men met each other there by appointment, as at a market or fair, and 

how they occupied themselves may easily be conjectured. — Memorials of fountains 

,uibbeyy vol. i., p. 405. 



THE RELICS. 



125 



They have not, as yet, been arranged in classified order, but 
the following objects will be easily identified : — 

UST OF RELICS IN THE COURT ROOM. 

Damton, described on p. io6. 

Broken scraps of Elizabethan figures, 
similar to those on the balcony at 
Fountains Hall. One inscribed lib.* 

Fragments of stained glass. 

Perforated devices in lead : formerly 
inserted in the windows for the purpose 
of ventilation. 

Portions of a wooden coffin, found in 
the Court in front of the chapter house. 

Two floor piscinae from the nine altars. 

Half of a blue marble fluted basin, 
from the same place. 

Part of a grey marble gravestone found 
near or in the Gallilee, inscribed in 
Lombardic letters. ..mas de a...i. 

*' Perpendicular " panelling cut in 
limestone, and found in the lady-chapel. 

A collection of broken pottery, keys^ 
picks, masons* tools, knives, pincers, a 
trowel^ stirrups, six prick and row- 
elled spurs, bridle-bits, horse -shoes, &c. 

A brass ladle, and other fragments of 
kitchen utensils. 

A large collection of plaster capitals, 
bands of columns, and other fragments of 
that beautiful Nidderdale marble-work 
so lavishly used by the builders of the 
choir, refectory, and other parts, between 
1204 and 1260. Some of these were 
found in the abbat's house ; but most of 
them in the choir and lady chapel. Two 
of the most delicately carved caps were 
turned up during the excavation of the 
frater house in 1856. 

A few mediaeval bricks & rooflng tiles. 

Effigy of Lord Mowbray (See p. 109). 

Scraps of John de Cancia's ** painted 
pavement." Thefloor of the court room 
was laid in 1855, with the old tiles that 
formerly strewed the floor of the passage 
under the vestry j along with others of 
the Early English and Tudor period found 
during the excavation. 

A quantity of lead piping. 

A brass buckle, chain, book-clasp ; a 
pilgrim*s bottle (metal), having impressed 
on one side a regal crown, and on the 
other the initials R P. in black letter. 

And, finally, 

A portion of the last supply of coal that 
the abbat needed. 



Inidals of Marmaduke Huby (original 
and plaster cast) formed of winged serpents 
and a stately-looking raven. Retrieved 
from an adjacent cottage in 1854. 

The coronation of the Blessed Virgin. 
The Nativity of Christ, and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin j carved on alabaster 
tablets found in the abbey. Of the two 
first there are also plaster casts. 

Figures of two Evangelists in panels — 
one of them St. Luke. (Originals and 
casts.) Taken from a wall adjoining the 
kitchen gardens, Studley Park. 

Cast of a "Perpendicular" niche and 
canopy, from the east side of the great 
tower. On the canopy stands the figure 
of an angel holding the arms of the abbey 
— three horse shoes. 

Cast of an Early English groining- 
springer, from the gate-house of the 
abbey. (See engraving, p. 10 1.) 

Broken figures (original and cast) of 
the Virgin and Child, found in front of 
the west door of the nave. (seep. 105.) 

Cast of a crowned female Martyr-saint 
from the north side of the tower. 

The marble basin used until 1859 as 
the font in Aldfield chapel \ formerly the 
holy water stoop that stood near the door 
leading from the cloister court to the 
south aisle of the nave. (See p. 113.) 

Figure of a chained dragon found in 
the chapel of the abbat's house. 

A beautiful sitting figure of our Saviour 
exposing the wound in his side. It is cut 
in limestone, and was found in the choir, 

A large sculptured and rude represen- 
tation of the Annunciation of the 
Virgin. The inscription, in black letter, 
is the salutation of Gabriel, aue m'ria 
[gracia] plena d*n's tecu\ See p. no. 

A rude upright figure of a monk — 5 
feet 3 inches high — holding a book in 
the left hand .* formerly ^placed, along 
with two or three fragments of other lesser 
figures of the Perpendicular period, at the 
north end of the Frater house. 

Part of a Tudor cornice representing a 
monkey, flowers, &c., from abbat^s house. 

A cast of the bracket which supports 
the niche over the great west window of 
the nave. This is the rebus of abbat 



126 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

On descending to the cloister court, we enter the Kitchen, 
a valuable example of the domestic architecture of the twelfth 
century ; vaulted like the court house above, to a single pillar. 
A more interesting instance, however, of the skill and confi- 
dence of the architect may be observed in the heads of the two 
fireplaces — each not less than i6i ft. long and i6f ft. deep — 
the heads of which are straight and formed of huge stones, 
dovetailed together on the principle of an arch. Hence, too, 
another requisite must have been contributed ; for the kitchen 
is entirely destitute of windows on three sides, and the triangular 
apertures to the south seem intended rather for the admission 
of air than of light. The two openings to the west wall have 
been, no doubt, the hatchways by which provisions were served 
to the refectory, but enlarged in modern times to obtain a 
prospect. 

The Refectory, which forms the central apartment on the 
south side of the cloister court, is a very beautiful structure, of 
the Early English period, of the dimensions of 109 by 46^ ft. 
As it could not,' therefore, be conveniently covered by one 
ridged roof, it was divided by a row of four marble columns, of 
which, however, all remains but the foundations of one have 
been destroyed within the last century. During the excavation 
of 1856, it was found that the tables had not ranged down the 
middle of the apartment, but had been placed, along with their 
seats or stalls, on a dais of the width of 5I feet; raised 13 
inches above the floor ; and occupying the upper end, and 89 
feet each of the east and west sides. From the recess on the 
west side, a portion of scripture was read during the repast. 
The parapet of the staircase has been broken down and unskil- 
fully repaired, but the bracket of the pulpit remains, in the form 
of an expanded flower. 

A door at the south-west corner of the cloister court leads 
to the Buttery, a curiously contrived room, which has, also, 
an outlet towards the river, and an opening to the refectory, 
which was the hatchway. On excavating this place a quantity 
of ashes, fish, and animal bones, broken pottery, oyster shells, 
flooring tiles, the remains of a boiler, some lead piping, and a 



THE BASK COURT. 



127 



Stone drain leading from where the sink stood, were discovered. 

The west cloister having been, no doubt, already examined, 
we now pass to the Base Court, on the south side of the 
chapter house. The whole area of this court, as well as that 
of the buildings which enclose it, on the south and east sides, 
have been discovered only in a recent excavation from the 
kitchen to the chapter house ; which, by restoring the old 
level, has added both considerably to the ground plan, and in- 
creased the picturesque appearance of the abbey. On the 
west side, it will be observed to have had a pent house attached 
to the frater house ; on the south, the cellar and brewhouse 
before mentioned ; and, on the east, three apartments which 
will attract attention chiefly from the fact that they were the 
prisons of the abbey. These favourite localities of the novelists 
were used for the punishment of such monks as had been found 
guilty of felony or other heinous crimes ; but, in this instance, 
the larger cell, on the south, may have been required by the 
secular authority which the convent enjoyed within "The 
Liberty of Fountains." In each, however, it is evident, soli- 
tary confinement and the most strict isolation was inflicted, 
from the consequent presence of a convenience, which added 
only to the oflFensive character of the place. The apartments 
on the east side of them, as well as those in the upper story, 
may have been used only for subordinate purposes, since the 
former were approached through the abbat's coal yard ; indeed, 
an ash-heap was discovered in front of the round-headed door- 
way. The staircase at the north-west corner may have served 
some apartments of the abbat's house over the passage. 

The whole of the apartments of the abbey have now been 
visited, and an idea has probably been formed of the nature, wants, 
and arrangement of the most definite and perfect exponent of the 
monastic system remaining in the kingdom. The recent exca- 
vation' has, however, disclosed in the ruin of the abbat's house 
now before us, an equally interesting example of oyr early 
domestic architecture, which furnishes, also, additional evidence 
of the dignity, hospitality, and general social condition of the 
rulers of these influential establishments. 



128 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

Previously to the month of November, 1848, the site of this 
house remained in the condition in which it was left when Sir 
Stephen Procter pulled it down to obtain building materials for 
Fountains Hall — a shapeless mass of rubbish, overgrown with 
weeds and brushwood, which rendered it inaccessible, and 
entirely concealed any trace of foundations which might have 
been sought. From a practice, however, which prevailed in 
the Cistercian houses, supported, locally, by inferences derived 
from the records of the abbey, I had been induced for some 
years past, to point out this as the site of the abbat's house, in 
opposition to the received idea that the hospitium, on the west 
side of the great cloister, had been appropriated to that purpose ; 
but beyond this suggestion, nothing, until the period in question 
was ascertained. At that time, the arched space above the 
river requiring repair, and consequently a removal of the soil, 
a pavement was discovered, which indicated the important 
character of the ruined building ; and ultimately led — by the 
noble owner's direction — to the extensive and interesting exca- 
vation which ensued. 

Before proceeding to a survey of the ruin, it should be 
observed by how great a sacrifice of labour the site of the 
house has been obtained in this particular and favourite locality ; 
for, as the valley is extremely contracted, and the Skell incap- 
able of permanent diversion, the only expedient of the monks 
was to build above the river ; and four parallel tunnels, each 
nearly 300 feet long, still attest their perseverance and skill. 

As far as remains enable . us to judge, the building of the 
house was undertaken by abbat John de Cancia, after he had 
completed the choir and lady chapel of the conventual church. 
The wealth and reputation of the monastery were, in his time, 
nearly at their height; and the sweeping donations it had received 
from the Percies, and Mowbrays, and Romillies, and their sub- 
infeudatories, had enabled them to realise their architectural 
designs on the grandest scale. Until this time, the residence 
of the abbat was probably of the humble, but not unusual, ma- 
terials of wood and plaster ; as, indeed, the lodgings of the prior 
of Bolton seem to have been at the time of the Dissolution. 



J 



SEAL AND COUNTER-SEAL OF FOUN'TAINS ABBEY. 



THE ABBAT S HOUSE. 



129 



The character of the structure, like that of the abbey, has 
been plain and substantial, depending more on the grand pro- 
portion and combination of the main outlines than on the elabo- 
rate decoration of particular features or parts. The arrange- 
ment must, however, either have been very commodious, or 
the domestic economy invariable ; for it seems to have remained 
unaltered until that era of social change which heralded the 
sixteenth century, when one of those great architectural refor- 
mers — Darnton or Huby — built a separate refectory, and formed 
several apartments, by dfviding the great hall, which decreased 
simplicity of manners had rendered of unnecessary dimensions. 

The chief or state approach to the house was by a spacious 
alley, from the east side of the ,cloister court, richly, but not 
continuously, decorated by a trefoil-headed arcade, supported 
by a double row of shafts, and so deeply recessed, as, subse- 
quently, to have required the insertion of solid masonry behind 
the foremost shaft. The Hall, to which this passage led, has 
been, unquestionably, one of the most spacious and magnificent 
apartments ever erected in the kingdom, and admirably adapted 
for the entertainment of those distinguished persons and their 
hosts of gentilitial retainers by whom the abbat was continually 
visited. Its Internal length is not less than 171 feet, and its 
width 70 feet ; the bases, or foundations, of eighteen cylin- 
drical columns, shafted and banded with marble, indicating its 
division into a nave and two aisles — the latter having circulated 
round the extremities of the former. The number and position 
of its windows cannot be ascertained ; but the jambs and bases 
dug up within the area^ shew that they were plain lancet lights 
similar to those of the lady chapel. Of the existence of cle- 
restory windows there is no trace. The chief entrance to the 
hall has been torn down to the ground ; but from the bases of 
the shafts by which it was flanked, it appears to have been of 
similar design to those of the lady chapel. On each side of 
the hall, which stands directly across the river, occupying the 
whole width of the house from north to south, the other apart- 
ments have been grouped. Immediately opposite the entrance 
is the principal staircase. On the left, in the north wall, one 



130 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

of the great fireplaces, now ruined to the hearth. To the 
right of the staircase has been a room not yet fully cleared out. 
The next apartment, southward, was the Chapel, where the 
foundations of two buttresses on the south side suggest the idea 
of three windows ; and a base still attached to the north-east 
angle, the only other feature left, that three lancet lights occu- 
pied the eastern extremity. The stone altar is still tolerably 
perfect, but has lost its slab. On its north side has been a 
narrow staircase, leading either to the vestry, or the apartments 
of the chaplain 5 and, beyond, the long but narrow base of a 
work erected in the Perpendicular period, of which the use is 
uncertain. 

On the north side of the chapel is a picturesque apartment 
partially vaulted, which, being below the general level of the 
other rooms, and from the declivity of the ground, always 
accessible, has often been delineated as a ** crypt," but stoutly 
asserted by the country people to have been '' the place where 
the abbat's six white chariot horses were kept ! " " Sex equi itd 
bigam^^^ the abbat certainly had in his stable at the time of the 
Dissolution ; but, from the position and character of the place, 
it appears to have been the Cellar and Store House of his 
establishment. 

To the south of the chapel, but detached from it by the 
intervention of the scullery yard, has been the Kitchen — an 
apartment corroborating, in its dimensions and appliances, the 
most romantic ideas of monastic hospitality. At the south side 
are the foundations of two 8;reat fireplaces and a boiler, in a 
wall which has divided a oiarrow '* back Jcitchen " from the 
chief apartment ; and, in the north-east angle, a stone grate in 
the floor, which was covered by wooden doors, and communi- 
cates with the river below. This very singular object, of 
which I do not remember another example, has, most probably, 
been used as a ventilator, to mitigate a temperature which must 
always have been sufficiently oppressive, but which, on festive 
occasions, would not only be increased by a subsidiary fire and 
boiler, but also by two huge ovens, the one at the west, and 
the other and larger, at the east end of the apartment. 



■aa. 



THE ABBATS HOUSE. I3I 

These buildings, with some indefinite appurtenances of the 
kitchen, have flanked the east side of the great hall. The 
arrangement on the west side has been nearly obhterated by the 
lapse of the arches above the river. There may be traced, 
however, towards the north, the foundation of a room, which, 
from the amplitude of its dimensions and the elevation of a 
dais at the west end, may be considered to have been the refec- 
tory, erected, it seems, by Darnton or Huby, and perhaps the 
apartment which, in a homage done to the latter abbat, in 1501, 
is styled "Nova camera versus ecclesiam." 

On the north side of this room was another, where stood a 
reservoir of water fed by a lead pipe (still partly visible) from a 
spring above the kitchen bank. To the west of it was the 
coal yard, in which the last supply that the abbat needed 
remained undisturbed until the excavation. 
There was found here, also, a large heap of 
ashes and cinders, just as they had been cast 
from the windows above — the sill having been 
worn by the frequent attrition of the shovel. 

The removal of the mass disclosed what 
every housekeeper's experience would have 
suggested. First, of course, there was a sil- 
ver spoon, weighing about an ounce, with a 
capacious bowl, slender octagonal stem, and a 
head like a plain inverted Tudor bracket ; 
then, broken pottery of different kinds and 
sizes — from the painted ware that had disappeared from the 
abbat's table, to the large coarse jugs that, after many "a mere 
crack," had at last been broken in the kitchen ; a small silver 
ornament resembling a lion's head, and apparently detached 
from an article of table plate^ a silver ring; a brass ring; 
several Nuremburg tokens; part of a perforated leaden venti- 
lator, designed like Tudor window tracery ; with a number of 
venison and beef bones, and bushels of oyster shells, mussel 
shells, and cockle shells, as fresh and pearly as when they left 
abbat Bradley's table. Yet, trifling and worthless in every 
respect as most of these objects might be, they seemed, as they 



132 FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

came from the hiding place where forgotten hands had cast 
them, to connect the spectator with those whom three centuries 
have divided from personal sympathy and association, more 
intimately than the disclosure of that ruined scene in which 
they had so long been consigned to oblivion. 

The Encaustic Tiles, found in excavating the several 
apartments — and it is remarkable that two additional patterns 
only have been subsequently discovered in the conventual 
church — are numerous and singular ; and the evidence obtained 
on the subject of mediaeval brickwork, important and interest- 
ing. The floors of the principal apartments have been paved 
either with encaustic or plain tiles ; but, as the greater part of 
them had been torn up and removed before the house was pulled 
down, when the specimens that remain were so much disturbed, 
it is difficult to determine to what particular apartment they 
belonged. The presence of a few geometrical tiles, similar to 
those with which John de Cancia decorated the church, seems 
to indicate that he had bestowed also a pavement on the hall 
and other chief apartments of the house ; but none were found 
fixed, unless the small square tiles east of the refectory may be 
referred to that early period. The test of the tiles, that have 
been found in different parts among the rubbish, are generally 
of the Tudor period ; of which character, also, is a tolerably 
perfect pavement, upwards of 30 feet square, at the south end 
of the great hall. Although no general device has been 
attempted in its arrangement, beyond a few plain borders or 
bounding courses, respective of the bases of pillars, yet several 
patterns, which are very interesting, are introduced without 
reference to equi-distance or principle. One pattern, of four 
tiles, displays the arms of the abbey (azure), three horse shoes 
(or), and the very appropriate circumscription, used by Darnton 
in the lady chapel, benedicite pontes domino. Another, 
and nearly similar pattern, of four tiles, exhibits the same arms, 
but circumscribed by soli deo honor et gloria — a motto 
always used by Huby, and identified more particularly with 
him in two fragmentary tiles, where the shield has displayed 
his initials, with the mitre and crozier. There is also a pattern, 



Or fhe N E ButlTi^SK LiSy Ghlfd 



VOffWl Sl.AB.'i DISCOVyilRll IN I'HB rEMCTERV, FOUNTUNS MilEY. 



ENCAUSTIC TILES. I33 

bearing the initials J. D. J. D.,but without legend, and similar 
to a much better impression, stolen, soon after its discovery, by 
some prowling *' collector," from the centre of the dais in the 
refectory. It was, no doubt, the device of abbat Darnton. 

On clearing the ground on the north side of the .alley lead- 
ing from the cloister court to the abbat's house, in 1852, it was 
found that a passage of a similar date and character had led from 
it to the opposite door of the lady chapel. Except the great 
effect gained by the removal of very deep rubbish from the 
walls of the chapter house and the choir, little of particular 
interest was acquired, except the basement story of a large 
apartment that had been erected in the Tudor period ; and, it 
may be, of that "nova camera" just alluded to, if I am mis- 
taken in its identity with the abbat's refectory. On the other 
and east side of this supplementary passage, had been another 
small apartment that had been added at this great period of 
change, but whose foundations were discovered all but level 
with the ground ; a wide doorway leading to the burial ground 
on the east side of the lady chapel ; and, attached to its outer 
wall, in the position indicated by the plan, considerable remains 
of an oven with its ashes — since unfortunately removed — that, 
I apprehend, had been used for the preparation of the eucha- 
ristic wafer. 

From the south-east angle of the lady chapel, a wall, whose 
position can now only be traced below the sward, was con- 
tinued — as is shewn also on the plan — to the opposite angle of 
the abbat's house. Beyond this, and in front of the east end of 
the church, were found several early sepulchral slabs. These 
remains have naturally led to the supposition that the cemetery 
was situated in this part of the valley ; and subsequent exam- 
ination of the subsoil has confirmed that opinion. It may 
. be that the armorial design of a " bend " displayed on one of 
the slabs has commemorated a member either of the York- 
shire houses of Mauley, or Stopham, or Pannal 5 for, of course, 
the colours are unrepresented. 

The abbat's garden and orchard were at the east end of the 
church, enclosed by a high wall, pulled down, with another 

' 



134 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY* 



which crossed the valley a little further eastward, soon after 
Mr. Aislabie purchased the place. But, beyond these limits, 
a range of buildings extended even to the site of the present 
east lodge— about 500 yards — the foundations still remaining 
under the terraced walk. 

In a particular position under the rocks — easy to be found 
by the beaten pathway — an echo can be heard, remarkable for 
its powerful reflection from the abbey ; though often more 
amusing to a bystander by its discovery of the mental capacity 
and social position of those who, by some characteristic war- 
cry, endeavour to provoke its powers. 

It may be useful to observe, that a footpath by the river side 
leads from Fountains bridge to Aldfield Spa ; a most valuable 
sulphuretted spring, in one of the most picturesque passes of 
Skeldale. It was discovered accidentally, about the year 1698, 
but has hitherto been unproductive of its capability, chiefly 
from the want of accommodation for visitors. There is, how- 
ever, a bath room, with conveniences for hot and cold baths. 
I am not able to state minutely its component parts, but the fol- 
lowing analysis, prepared by Mr. firunton, a skilful chemist of 
Ripon, about 60 years ago, will at least give an idea of its 
importance. A gallon exhibited : 



Solid Contents. 
Carbonate of Lime 
Carbonate of Magnesia 
Sulphate of Magnesia 
Muriate of Soda 
Muriate of Magnesia . 

Total 



Grs 

12.5 

35 

5- 
208. 

96. 

3^5- 



Gaseous Contents, C. In. 

Carbonic Acid 6. 

Azote ...,., 4. 
Sulphuretted Hydrogen . . . 2I. 



Total 



3i< 



Very pure azotic gas, in a free state, emitted at intervals, was collected at the rate of 
a gallon in 56 minutes, though several bubbles escaped. 

Higher up there is a pretty little glen, branching off to the 
left, full of romantic beauty. A footpath leads up through 
this to the village of Risplith. In the glen will be found a 
spring of iron water. 

On leaving the abbey close, we enter a portion of the Studley 
grounds, not already visited j and, after the enjoyment of much 



BANQUETTING HOUSE. I35 

sylvan beauty, enhanced in a remarkable decree by our elei 
above the contracted and deeply wooded dell, emerge < 
delicious lawn, before a beautiful casino or Banque 
HoKSE. In the chief apartment, adorned with a superb ceiling 
and other elaborate decorations of the last century, is a bronze 
statue of the Venus de Medicis, and, over the mantel-piece, a 
painting of *' the governor of- Surat going a-hawking." 

As we recede from this seductive spot, we continue to recog- 
nise many pleasing objects, which, being old acquaintance, 
need no introduction, though invested with new interest by the 
reversal of our former position and approach i until, descend- 
ing the well walk, we speedily arrive at the lodge, and so bid 
adieu to scenes that, for many a year, may make 

The mind a manaon lor all lovely (arms. 

The memoiy » dwelling place 

For all sweet sounds and harmonies. 



STUDLEY CHURCH. 

N the visitor's way to or from the abbey, 
he may repair to the new church on the 
' hill above the lodge gates. This fine 
building is conspicuously situated on the 
edge of the vale, at the end of the noble 
avenue in the park, and forms an inter- 
esting object in the landscape along the drive from Rlpon. 
It has been placed midway between the villages of Aldfield and 
Studley Royal, to supply the spiritual wants of both villages, 
instead of the old chapel at Aldfield and the private chapel at 
Studley Hall, at which places the morning and afternoon 
services were alternately conducted. 

The approach to the church from the lod^ gates at once 
unfolds one of the most pleasing and effective views of the 
&bric — the east end, with its beautifiil groups of sculpture, the 
side elevations (d'the nave and chancel, the massive tower with 
its loAy and elegant spire, the whole backed out by the ancient 
trees, combine to form a picture with hardly an equal in the 
county. It is constructed in the 13th century style of archi- 
tecture, and has been erected by the Marchioness of Ripon, 
and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. T'*^ foundation stone, 
which bears the following inscription, was laid by the Mar- 
chioness of Ripon (then Countess de Grey), in March^ 

1871: — tN HONOREM BEAT* MARl^JE VIRGINIS HANC PET- 
RAM POSUIT HENRIETTA COMITESSA DE GREY ET RIPON, DIE 
ANNUKCIATIONIS, A.D. MDCCCLXXI, 

The church consists of a nave with aisles, chancel and inner 
chancel, vestry and west tower, and spire 152 feet high. 

There are two entrances to the church, the chief one being 
at the west end, and the other by the south porch. 

Exterior. The tower is of two stages, and has octagonal 
turrets at its angles, capped with pinnacles and finials, and is 
relieved by bold buttresses. The lowest stage of the tower 



138 STUDLEY CHURCH. 

forms the west front, this being the chief entrance to the church 
has a very handsome doorway, partly concealed by an exterior 
arch, through which we pass to a pleasing trefoil-headed door- 
way, enriched by sculpture, in the form of birds on a running 
spray. Above the doorway is a fine four-light windo^r, 
with circular tracery above, and trefoils between the spandrils. 
On the south side of the tower is the doorway to the ringing 
chamber ; the staircase, in the form of an octagonal turret, 
abuts on the tower, terminating in a conical head with a 
carved finial. The spire springs from an ornamental cornice, 
and is divided by bands of roses and fleurs-de-lis into three 
stages; prominent gable-headed windows relieve its alternate 
sides. From the carved finial which finishes the spire rises the 
vane or weathercock. In the first stage of the octagonal spire 
is the bell chamber, with a single-light window at each side, 
blocked with lead louvres. 

The porch is on the south side, and has a richly moulded arch- 
way, with an ornamentation of ball flowers on its surface ; in 
the gable is a sculptured representation of the Annunciation 
of the Virgin — the Holy Ghost being figured in the quatre- 
foil above. The groining of this porch is very effective, having 
stone ribs enriched with fleurs-de-lis. The inner doorway, 
whose surface and soffit are sculptured, springs from a moulded 
string course, continued from the lateral walls. 

The exterior of the nave will probably be next examined. 
The south side is divided by buttresses into three bays, and a 
single window, whilst* the north side has an additional bay ; 
a trefoil-headed two-light window, enriched with the nail-head 
ornament, is placed between each buttress. The clerestory, 
somewhat stunted in appearance, has sixteen single trefoil- 
headed lights. 

The chancel is in two bays, divided by bold buttresses, and 
is of a pleasing and harmonious design. The windows 
are in pairs, having banded shafts, with double trefoil heads, 
and enriched with ball flower ornament 5 they are placed under 
crocketed labels, each terminating with a rich finial, which dies 
into the cornice ; the terminations of these labels are carved into 



STUDLEY CHURCH. 



139 



heads, and viewing them from the east they thus appear — south 
side: Countess, Count, Bishop, Sculptor, Peasant man. 
Huntsman. North side : King, Queen, Warrior, Architect, 
Peasant woman. Artist. 

The east window occupies the whole width between the 
buttresses, and has four lights, the head being filled in with 
deeply moulded tracery. A crocketed label runs round the 
head of the window, and its finial supports the central piece of 
sculpture — the Crucifixion, which is very beautifully worked 
out, and will be found worthy of a minute inspection j on the 
right hand side are the figures of S. George and the Dragon, 
and S. Bernard with his book ; on the left those of S. Wilfrid 
with his episcopal staff, and S. Gabriel with his sword and 
shield. These groups are placed under shallow niches, filled in 
with blank tracery ; the finials running through the coping. 
The gable is finished with a cross. The vestry, on the north 
side, has a flat lead roof, and parapet with gurgoyles, and is 
lighted by three two-light windows, and has a doorway for the 
use of the minister. 

On passing into the interior by the west door the visitor must 
turn to inspect the sculpture in the inner tracery of the west 
window. It represents the Root of Jesse and Ancestors of 
Our Lord, on the sill of the window is the reclining figure of 
Jesse. The corbels supporting the vaulting ribs of the tower 
are carved into the representation of the Beasts of Daniel. 

The architecture of the nave is of a light and elegant cha- 
racter ; it is divided from its aisles by a bold arcade of four bays 
on each side, supported by cylindrical columns, enriched 
with black marble shafts, and beautifully carved caps. Above 
is the clerestory, with a low trefoil arcade on black marble 
shafts with deeply moulded caps. The division of each bay is 
marked by a black marble column projected from the clerestory, 
these are carried by carved corbels and support the tie beams of 
the roof. In the aisles a continuous plain and angular arcad- 
ing, supported on black marble columns gives a pleasing 
appearance to this portion of the church. At the east end of 
the south aisle is the chapel dedicated to St. George — the 



140 STUDLEY CHURCH. 

Stained glass of the window representing the life and death of 
that saint Here a family vault has been built, and it is 
intended that the future interments of the family shall take place 
in it. 

The chancel is approached through an elegant and lofty arch, 
springing from coloured marble columns with moulded bases and 
gracefully carved capitals. There is an elegance and harmony 
about this portion of the church which must captivate every 
visitor. The inner tracery of the windows, supported on various 
coloured marble shafts, has a good effect, while the sculp- 
tures harmonise throughout with their surroundings. In the 
upper tracery of the windows and at the springing of the dome 
are figures of angels — these being Revelation subjects correspond 
with the illustrations in the stained glass of the chancel. The 
ceiling is in the form of a waggon-headed vault of pine, divided 
into panels by a moulded rib ; that of the inner chancel termi- 
nates in a dome of wood, beautifully carved and decorated. 
The floors of both chancels are laid with marble mosaic ; a 
porphyry step dividing the two. 

The pulpit is of stone, and is placed at the east end of the 
north aisle of the nave, whilst the organ occupies a prominent 
position in the second bay from the east end of the nave. 
The font is situated in its usual place at the west end of the 
south aisle. The stalls, seats, and other fittings, are in perfect 
harmony with the building. 

Stained Glass. The west window contains eight scenes 
from the life of the virgin ; the figure of the Holy Mother 
occupying a central position in the upper tracery. The sub- 
jects of the aisle windows are all Scriptural; those in the 
chancel are from the Book of Revelation alone. The cleres- 
tory windows contain the Angelic Hierarchy. This portion of 
the work has been executed by Saunders and Co., London, the 
cartoons having been prepared by Mr. F. Weekes. 

The architect of this beautiful structure is Mr. W. Burgess, 
London ; the builder, Mr. J. Thompson, Peterborough ; the 
clerk of the works, Mr. J. Thomas, Cardiff i the sculptor, 
Mr. T. Nicholes. 



MARKENFIELD HALL. 

HREE miles to the south-west of Ripon stands 
an interesting specimen of Domestic Architec- 
ture of the fourteenth century. Built by Sir 
Thomas Markenfield in the centre of land 
held since the time of Henry I., it became the 
home of a celebrated family. Sir Ninian, one of the descen- 
dants of Thomas Markenfield, according to an old ballad, com- 
manded with Lofd ClifFord at the memorable battle of Flodden, 
and distinguished himself there, for we are told : — 

" Nat went Sir Nynyan Mirkenlyl 
■In armor cocc of cuoynge work." 

Thomas, his son, succeeded him, but unfortunately marrying 
Margaret, the daughter of John Norton, ©f Norton, he was 
incited to join in the rebellions in the reign of Henry VIII., 
and from that time their ancient house began to tremble. 
Thomas, his son, who was seventeen years old at his father's 
death, married Isabel, the daughter of Sir William Ingilby, of 
Ripley, knight. Inheriting all his father's martial spirit, he 
took a part in " the Rising of the North," and on the ruin of 
his party, in 1569, his estates were confiscated, and he fled to 
the continent. A fine tomb in the north transept commem- 
morates the burial of Sir Thomas and Elenor his wife, " afore 
the awter of Saynt Androwe in the monastery of Saynt Wilfride 



142 MARKENFIELD HALL. 

in Ripon " in 1453. '^^^ license to crenellate this house was 
obtained in 13 10, and it was probably begun about that 
time. 

The hall is a large castellated structure, in the form of a 
quadrangle, and surrounded by a moat, part of which is now 
filled up. It was erected by Sir Thomas Markenfield, in 
the time of Edward III., who might employ the company of 
builders who had then just completed the additions to the choir 
of Ripon minster, as a great similarity may be observed in the 
mouldings, pyramidal turrets, and other parts. Hesitating be- 
tween hospitable confidence and armed precaution, yet never 
intended as a place of serious or permanent defence, Marken- 
field presents a fine specimen of those '* ancient homes of 
England,'' which, from the increasing sociability, security, and 
polish of the times, began to arise during the reign of the third 
Edward. 

In the fifteenth century some alterations were made, chiefly 
in the doorways and lights on the east side of the quadrangle, 
and in the great change of society which ensued in the Eliza- 
bethan period, a general subdivision of the several apartments 
became necessary. Since that time, however — though for a 
while it was inhabited by the Egertons — it has been occupied 
as a farm house, and so lost more and more of a character 
which was in some degree restored a few years ago under the 
direction of the late Mr. Walbran. At this time some modern 
insertions were unfortunately made in the old style, notably a 
window, with a lily over it, in the place of the outer door of 
the hall over the basement story. The foundations of a stair 
leading to this door have since been found in the court yard, 
and there is a gable-mark over it. See woodcut. 

Though the original ground-plan is probably undisturbed, 
the entire shell of the present structure is not, wholly, of the 
founder's work. Indeed, the gate-house is only of the Eliza- 
bethan period, and the stables, on the west side of the court, 
though^hi^hly curious, have been partially renewed. 

The principal apartments were in die north-east angle, ele- 
vated, as usual, above the basement story, in which were the 



MARKENFIELp HALL. 143 

kitchen, cellars, and other offices, still evident and partly 
vaulted. The north wing is entirely occupied by the Hall, a 
noble apartment about 40 feet long, and the whole width of the 
building. It is lighted by four Decorated windows, with 
pointed arches, two towards the court-yard and two towards 
the moat. At the west end were the wooden " screens," with 
music-gallery over them, lighted by a window. At the south-east 
is the chapel, which has a fine east window, with geometrical 
tracery ; and a richly decorated piscina, with the arms of the 
family. To the north of the chapel is the solar, communicat- 
ing with a garderobe ; and on the south a room occupied perhaps 
by the chaplain ; and apartments over the stables, most likely 
bedrooms. 

On the north side of the court yard are nine shields of arms : 
four are defaced ; the fifth bears the arms of the Markenfields j 
sixth, a cross Jiory ; seventh, three mitres j eighth, an eagle dis- 
played ; ninth, five fusils^ each charged with an escallops for 
Plumpton. 

The mansion is placed in the north and east corners of the 
quadrangle. Two long windows with trefoil heads, each 
divided by a n>ullion into two lights, remain on the north side. 
A winding staircase, leading to the battlements, is enclosed 
in a large turret, similar to one in Spofforth Castle. The 
original Decorated house was altered and added to in the 15th 
and i6th centuries. The barns, stables, and other offices, com- 
plete the remaining part of the quadrangle. 

Mr. Parker, in his Domestic Architecture^ says : '* Taken 
altogether, Markenfield Hall bears a greater resemblance to the 
generality of south country than northern manor houses. The 
introduction of large Decorated windows of two, and one of 
three lights, the latter towards the moat, is not characteristic of 
a dwelling house, built with a studious view to defence. In 
respect of plan, Markenfield has some likeness to the mansion 
at Woodland Mere, Wiltshire, which is partly of this century j 
in the latter, the chief entrance to the older portion of the 
building was clearly by an external staircase." 

A piece of curiously carved oak, which has originally formed 



144 MARKENFIELD HALL. 

the head of a doonra^, is still preserved. It bears the arms of 
the family,— quarterly, one and four ; on a bend three iexants, 
Marlcenfield i second, ifttse between six escallopi ; third, three 
conical helmets. Supporters, two stags regardant. Crest, a 
hind's head affrantie. 

Within the recollection of several aged persons, other large 
buildings and offices are remembered to have stood without the 
moat ; but these, together with a ponderous draw-bridge lead- 
ing to the entrance on the south side, have long since been 
removed. 

In pteway h ill graa-gmwn now, 

Nu coming — no depardiif train, 
With glittering iword ind nodding plume, 

Shall i)Hir throggh it again. 

On the attainder of Thomas Markenfield in 1569, this estate 
was confiscated to the crown, who granted it to the Lord 
Chancellor Egerton, ancestor to the celebrated Duke of Bridge- 
water, who sold it CO Sir Fletcher Norton, first Lord Grantlcy, 
by whose representative it is at present possessed. 

REFERENCES TO PLAN. 

I Kitchen. ro-i> Lineof Screens. 

a-S Offices and Cellars. la Music-gallery over Screens. 

6 Lower Garderobe. 13 Chaplain's Apattment |?} to the 

7 Kitchen Garderobe. south of which are rooms over 

8 Solar, or "sitting-room," stables. 

9 Upper Gaiderobe. 



MARKENFfELD HALL, YORKSHIRE. 



THE EPISCOPAL PALACE. 

[ SPACIOUS stone building, designed in the Tudor 
style, by Mr. Railton, occupies a slight eminence 
about a mile north-west of Ripon, commanding 
agreeable prospects down the valleys of the 
Laver and the Yore, as well as of the cathedral 
and the city. The foundation stone was laid by the bishop of 
Ripon, on the ist of October, 1838, and the structure was 
prepared for his reception in the autumn of 1841. 

The appurtenant demesne, which adjoins the ancient manorial 
park of the archbishop of York, contains one hundred and nine 
acres, and was gratuitously ceded by Mrs. Lawrence, the lessee 
of that prelate, who also provided the building stone. 

A small chapel had been originally included among the apart- 
ments of the palace, but a disposition having been manifested 
by the inhabitants of a neighbouring hamlet to attend the services 
which were more particularly intended for the bishop's household. 
Archbishop Harcourt, who had witnessed the inconvenience 
of their number, and their inability regularly to visit the parish 
church, munificently placed the sum of 3000/. at the disposal of 
the bishop of Ripon, wherewith to erect a more suitable struc- 
ture. A site having been accordingly chosen on the cast side 
of the palace, the foundation of a chapel, designed by Mr. 
R^lton, in the Perpendicular style, was laid on the 24th of June, 
1846. A brass fixed in the north wall is thus inscribed :■ Ad 



146 castle dykes. 

Dei Gloriam in Xto hanc Capellam in usum Episcopor' 
Rip's fundavit Eduardus Archiep' Ebor', Carolo 
Tho : Episcopo. an. D» 1847. The eastern semi-hexagonal 
apse of the chapel has three windows of stained glass by Wailes 
(1850-1852) representing our Saviour and the Evangelists, 
Apostles, and Saints. On a fillet beneath six of the 
apostles in the north window is : |J( Soli Deo Gloria ^ 
This window is the gift of 185 Clergymen, ordained 
BY THE Bishop of Ripon, recording their sense of the 

KINDNESS, PIETY, AND ABILITY WITH WHICH THE ReVD. 

Charles Dodgson, M.A., Examining Chaplain, has 

DISCHARGED THE DUTIES OF HIS OFFICE DURING 1 5 YEARS. 

A.D. 1852. 



CASTLE DYKES. 

In a county so rich in Roman remains and within a few miles 
of that interesting station, Isurium, we are not surprised to 
find, scattered about, small camps. Castle Dykes is one, and 
within a short distance there are two others, the one on Carls- 
moor and the other on Nutwith common. In March, 1866, 
some members of the Ripon Scientific Society examined this 
site, and an account was written by Mr. T. C. Heslington. 
At a distance of about three miles from Ripon, on the left of 
the road to Tanfield, a fosse and agger, forming three sides of a 
quadrangle, enclosing about five and a half acres, may be 
observed. Here, in the upper part of the field, after exca- 
vation, was found the Praetorium, and two rooms, the larger 
25 ft. by 2if ft., and the smaller-i5 ft. by 14! ft., were traced 
out. Several of the pillars forming the hypdcaust were found 
in situ ; and tesserae, with fragments of pavement, brilliantly 
coloured stucco displaying elegant patterns in various colours, 
and other remains, indicated a luxurious Roman dwelling. Frag- 
ments of bones, human and animal, of skulls, of glass and 
Samian ware ; pins, shells, &c. ; and the remains of a cremated 
interment were amongst the smaller articles which rewarded 
this examination. 




WEST TANFIELD. 

URING the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury Leland "passed by ferry for lack of 
bridge'' the dark coloured and moor-stained 
Yore, and found " the townlet of West Tan- 
felde standing on a diving ground." " There be," says he, 
*' two faire parkes at Tanfelde, and meatly plenty of wood. 
The castelle of Tanfelde, or rather, as it is now, a meane 
manor place, stondeth hard on a ripe of We, wher I saw 
no notable building, but a fair toured gate house, and a haulle 
of squarid stone." It is much the same now, but that a sub- 
stantial and commodious bridge spans the Yore. 

Some celebrity is attached to this village ; for here the 
" Marmions of real history " had a mansion, which John Lord 
Marmion, for his great services in the Scottish wars, was 
allowed to castellate 5 but no remains of it now exist, except 
the gateway tower or porter's lodge, at the west end of the 
church. There are several fire-places and other conveniences 
in the tower, which has a fine and elegantly proportioned oriel 
window, commanding an extensive prospect. 

In preparing for the erection of the present rectory, the found- 
ations of this castle were discovered, and a well of excellent 
water, in which were found several ancient dirks, since pre- 
sented, we believe, to the British Museum. 

It is remarkable that this lordship, together with many others, 
came into the possession of the Marmions by the marriage of 
Robert Lord Marmion with Amice Fitzhugh, in die thirteenth 
century, and passed out of it in the next by the marriage of 
Elizabeth, heiress of Robert de Marmion, with Henry Lord 
Fitzhugh. 

The church was originally Norman ; but it was most pro- 
bably extensively restored, if not rebuilt, at the time of the 



148 WEST TANFIELD. 

erection of the castle, since the Perpendicular work in both is 
very similar. The north aisle, containing the Marmion tombs , 
was rebuilt by Maude de Marmion, in 1343. Though it may 
not vie with the neighbouring structures of Bedale, Burniston, 
Well, or Kirklington, yet it exceeds them all in the number 
and splendour of its sepulchral decorations. 

At the upper end of the aisle, under an arch in the wall, lies 
the effigy of a recumbent knight, in link mail, much defaced, 
and by his side his lady, with her hands conjoined. She has a 
plain mantle and head dress. It is possible these may represent 
Lord John de Marmion, who died in 1322, and his lady. 

Next are the tombs of two ladies, which have been removed 
from the middle of the aisle to the place they now occupy 
against the wall, for accommodation in after days, when reve- 
rence was giving way to convenience. The figures of the 
females sculptured upon them are so much defaced, that it is 
almost impossible to assign to them any person or time, with 
any degree of certainty. Leland, writing in 1534, mentions 
one of them as having a ^^crownet^^ on her head. On one 
side are sculptured the following arms. First, Grey of Rother- 
field, harry of six, over all a bend ; second, Courtney ; third, 
Clifford, chequey a f esse ; fourth, a chevron^ charged with 2ijleur 
de lis ; fifth, Dispencer, quarterly^ one and four, or and gules ; 
two and three, 2, fret ^ and over all a bend. 

At their feet, on a single low tomb, is the figure of a young 
cross-legged knight, in chain mail, with a large mantle almost 
covering his whole body. His feet rest against a lion, and a 
shield, without any charge, is by his left side. This is gene- 
rally supposed to represent the weak and sickly Lord Robert 
de Marmion, the third baron, though it is probably of a much 
earlier date. 

Insulated from the rest, at the middle of the east end of the 
aisle, is a magnificent tomb, whereon are the reclining figures 
of a knight and his lady, beautifully sculptured in alabaster. 
He is habited in plate mail, and has a conical helmet, highly 
enriched, which rests on another of larger size. On his breast 
are the arms of Marmion, vair^ a fesse^ gules. He wears 



WEST TANFIELD. I49 

a finely-wrought Lancastrian S S collar. The head-dress 
of the lady is supported by two angels, and on her breast are 
sculptured the chevronels and the vairy chief of the St. Quintin 
family. These represent Sir Robert de Marmion (son of Sir 
John de Grey and Alice, daughter of John, second tord 
Marmion) and Laura his wife, daughter and co-heiress of 
Herbert de St. Quintin. They had issue but one daughter, 
who married Henry, Lord Fitzhugh, father to Robert, the 
celebrated Bishop of London of that name. Over the tomb 
remains the iron " herse," with its prickets for lights at the 
corners and on the extremities of the ridge. It is an interesting 
and rare specimen. The framework was usually covered with 
rich tapestry. 

Some fine old glass occupied the east and north windows of 
this noble aisle ; but "restoration" has done its work, and little 
now remains but one window, consisting of fragments crowded 
together and made up with modern additions. The figures of 
St. Ambrose and St. William ; a mutilated representation of 
the Crucifixion ; the angel of justice ; the sun and moon ; and 
the arms of the Marmions and the St. (^intins, surrounded by 
a curious border of spread-eagles and bees, are all that remain 
of more than double the number of saints with other glories of 
a grand past. In the east window there is some modern glass 
to the memory of T. K. Staveley, Esq., of Old Sleningford 
Hall, and also in the west window to the memory of his only 
son. Miles Staveley, Esq. 

One of the most remarkable features in the church is a small 
chamber formed in the north eastern portion of the chancel 
arch. It is perhaps unique. It has often been styled a confes- 
sional J but, examination hardly corroborates such a view. 
Three trefoiled headed lights command the east and two the 
south ; while a "squint" looks directly upon the centre of the 
east of the Marmion chantry, and an arch opens to the north. 
Its internal area is 3 ft., 9 in. by 4 ft. 

Another peculiarity in this edifice is a low side window of 
two plain square lights, in the south-east corner of the nave. It 
is more like a hollow buttress opening into the nave by a some- 



150 THORMBOROUGH. 

what flattened arch. Whether this may have been an outward 
confessional or an alms window it is difficult to say ; but it is 
worth notice to observe that the line of the "squint" before 
mentioned also commands this window. 

The ring of bells, now six in number, have recently been 
excellently rehung by Mallaby, of Masham. The three new- 
ones are by Warner and Co. The three old ones bear the 
following inscriptions : — 

First bell. GLORIA IN ALTISSIMIS DEO, 1685. W.B. CHVRCH- 

WARDEN, s. s. Ebor. 

Second bell. BEATVS est popvlvs qvi exavdivnt clang- 

OREM, 1724. s. s. Ebor. 

The thirds or death bell, ante jacetis hvmo sonitv resi- 
pisciTE MCESTO, 1 695. s. s. Ebor. 

Some interesting, but imperfect, sepulchral inscriptions are 

scattered about the floor ; and there is, at the west end of the 

nave, a plain coffin lid of mountain limestone, of early character. 

In the chancel is an ancient brass figuring a priest in his 

robes, and bearing this inscription : — 

DuM vixiT Rector de tanfeld Nomine Thomas 

Sutton . En jacet hic graduatus et ille magister 

Artibus . AC EciAM Canonicus hicque West Chester. 

Sic Norton victor fFuNDiTE vota precor. 



THORNBOROUGH. 

At a distance of a little more than a mile north-east of Tan- 
field there are some remarkable earthworks. They were sup- 
posed to be Roman, because the Roman vicinal way from 
Leeming Lane to Bracchium passed near. But no Roman 
remains have been found, and their circular form, as well as 
their situation on an open moor, negative this idea. The 
examination of adjacent tumuli, and the discovery of rude 
pottery, chipped flints, and other fragments, plainly indicate an 
early British, if not a pre-historic period. 



— T*- 



HACKFALL. 




O THOSE who are gladdened by the works of 
Nature, and by a ramble in an umbrageous* 
retreat, there cannot be afforded a richer treat 
than a trip to Hackfall. It is distant seven 
miles from Ripon and eighteen from Harrogate. It is a sufficient 
recommendation to know that its beauty was commemorated 
by Gilpin ; and that Pennant, who had seen much, and gene- 
rally saw everything well, styled it '' one of the most pictur- 
esque scenes in the north of England." 

This peculiar character is occasioned by the expanding em- 
bouchure of a precipitous glen, that guides a leaping stream, 
opposite a grand sweep of the river Yore, where it ploughs its 
way at the bottom of a deep and densely wooded ravine. 
Naked and rifted scars create, apart from their intrinsic majesty, 
a charming contrast by their protrusion from the long sylvan 
steeps ; while simple erections, artfully contrived and judiciously 
distributed, blend, as far as fiction may, the associations that 
gather around the ruined arch and broken tower. 

The entrance to the woods is by a simple wicket, found 
immediately after leaving the village of Grewelthorpe, on the 
side of the road to Masham. The little rivulet, gurgling over 
its stony bed, accompanies our declining path, until joined by 
the Alum-spring gliding noiselessly through the woods on the 
brae side, though blemished by the artificial character of its 
mossy channel. The path is continued to the river ; but we 
cross the burn, and, forgetting the steep ascent of the glen, in 
the diversity of prospect which every footstep acquires, sur- 
mount the wooded vale at '' Mowbray Castle ; " where the 
view extends uninterruptedly from our feet, to the long range 
of accliving land that shelters the town of Richmond. 



152 HACKFALL. 

We sink by slow gradations to the high bank of the river, 
passing reluctantly each recurring prospect of its waters and 
peering down gullies that headlong torrents have ploughed in 
the steep brae side. Having thus attained the extreme southern 
point, screened only by slender bou^s from the perilous stream, 
we may enjoy the seclusion of the dell, by winding down the 
long terraces that have been laboriously hewn athwart the im- 
pending scar. High, over-arching, boughs have entwined theif 
grisly roots among the bare bleak rocks, and often may be 
observed, protruding themselves, at considerable distances, from 
the parent stem. 

After a short stroll by the river — interrupted offensively by 
the scroggy plantation that has superseded the ancient woods 
on the further bank — we cross the bura that accompanied our 
early walk, and em1)race the opportunity of rest, and restorative 
appliances, at "Fisher's Hall." From this little grot — formed 
chiefly of petrifactions collected in the grounds — the river, roll- 
ing on under the sombre hill, attracts, from its proximity, at 
least, undivided attention, until a glance — perhaps casually and 
at departure— discloses, in the contrary direction, two rills steal- 
ing down the mossy rocks, embosomed in verdant shade. 
*' Mowbray Point" and '* Castle" crown, at a considerable 
elevation, the sylvan canopy ; but much of their beauty is lost 
in the assimilation of the objects. 

Having crossed the dell of the " Town-beck," and turned 
away from the river^ we halt in the solitude of the woods, to 
view, from a rustic bower, a rill skipping amid tall graceful 
stems ; and — in another direction — down a lofty avenue, the 
ruin on " Mowbray Point," relieved only by the clouds. 

As we seek the brow of the impending hill, various distant 
prospects of the country beyond Masham object themselves, 
even to a careless eye ; until, having gained the jutting brow, 
a foretaste of the coming prospect of the far-famed vale of 
York is seen peeping through the trees. Yet, another glimpse, 
and a few hurried paces more, and the long expected gratifi- 
cation appears, in all its grandeur and beauty, at " Mowbray 
Point." 



HACKFALL. I53 

From the abyss at one's feet — ^where black waters sleep in 
cavernous gloom — the eye rises, joyously, to the bold massy 
foreground of deep woods and sweeping torrents, to meads and 
cornfields, and forests, and an interminable succession of flood 
and fell — bewildered amid the myriad shapes and shades inex- 
tricably woven into their web ; nor dreams of the immensity 
of that gorgeous expanse until the faint blue lines mingle with 
the Hambleton hills, and it finds the amplitude that converges 
to its vision comprehends the sixty miles that intervene between 
the towers of York and the estuary of the Tees. 

To detail, then, to strangers, the numberless objects that 
may be observed, would be both unnecessary and unavailing. 
Yet, it may detain many a lingerer to know that, where the 
twin towers of Tanfield rise by the gleaming stream, the last 
home of the great Marmions is canopied by the one ; and that 
the chivalry of the north have approached the halls of Fitzhugh 
through the other ; that in the gabled pile to the right, " Old 
Norton " mused on the treason that has immortalised his name; 
and that at Topcliffe — receding further from the view — the 
regal hearted Percys enjoyed a retirement from the world, until 
the avenging hand of Elizabeth entailed misery and ruin on the 
representative of their race ; that— j-still beyond — towers Craike, 
the embattled patrimony of the sainted Cuthbert ; and — turn- 
ing quickly aside — that Northallerton, forgetful of the stately 
palace of the bishops of Durham, and looking upon the plain 
of the Battle of the Standard, nestles at the left of the moun- 
tain ridge J and that, glancing over the Priory of Mountgrace, 
and Harlsey the stronghold of the Strangwayes, and Whorlton 
of the Meinells and the Darcies, and Stokesley of the Baliols 
and the Eures, Roseberry rears its conical peak among the 
clouds; while, still beyond, the high lands of Eston die into a 
line of gleaming light, that may, reasonably, be deemed to be 
the ocean. 

Few having looked on so much beauty, would now desire 
further entertainment. The path favours our return, and by a 
circuitous route, that agreeably mitigates our transition, we 
presently regain the lanes and fields. 




WATH. 

ORTH-EAST from Ripon lies, at a distance 
of about four miles, the parish of Wath, and 
comprises within its limits the townships of 
Wath, Melmerby, Norton Conyers, and 
Middleton Quernhow. The population is about 650. In the 
first-mentioned township is a village with the parish church j 
in the second is a still larger village ; in the third is an ancient 
mansion, formerly the residence of the late Sir Bellingham 
Graham, bart., and now the property, by purchase, of Viscount 
Downe ; and in the fourth township is a small village, and on 
its picturesque green there is a dilapidated manor house, chiefly 
of seventeenth century architecture. Norton has derived the 
additional name of Conyers from Adam Coigniers (son of Roger, 
lord of Hutton Conyers, near Ripon) whose mother was Mar- 
garet, daughter and sole heir of Richard Norton, of Norton, 
and who called himself Norton. He lived in the time of 
Edward II. The property continued in the possession of this 
family until the time of Queen Elizabeth. Richard Norton, 
son of the above Adam Conyers, alias Norton, was made chief 
justice of the common pleas in 1413 ; his grandson. Sir John 
Norton, who was a knight of the bath, perhaps erected some 
portion of the present mansion, in the time of Henry VII. 
Richard Norton, the last of the femily who owned the estate, 
having taken a conspicuous part in the rash insurrection of 
1 5 70- 1, was attainted, and died an exile in Spanish Flanders. 
He was the father of a very numerous family of eight sons and 
eleven daughters, and one of his descendants. Sir Fletcher Nor- 
ton, was created Lord Grantley in 1782. The crown sold the 
estate of Norton Conyers to Sir Richard Musgrave (temp^ 
James I.) from whose son it passed by purchase into the Gra- 
ham family. The sepulchral brasses of several of the Nortons 



WATH. 



155 



are in the chapel of S. John the Baptist, in Wath church. 
Here are also several memorials of the Grahams. 

The property of Wath township has descended to the 
Marquess of Ailesbury from the family of the Marmions, 
possessors also of West Tanfield, in the church of which 
parish a remarkable collection of their monuments may be seen. 
The parish church is situated at the extreme east end of Wath- 
street, within a few paces of the ford {Vada^ whence the name 
of Wath) which traversed a once deep, treacherous, and exten- 
sive marsh. This ford was protected in Roman,, and probably 
in early British, times by a moated earthwork, remains of which 
are visible on the north-east side of the churchyard. The first 
church was erected by the Anglo-Saxons, and was dedicated to 
St. Oswald. Fragments of its sculptured stones were found 
during the recent restoration. In the troublous times which 
preceded the Norman invasion, the structure was reduced to 
ruins out of which arose a second church, in the twelfth century, 
dedicated to S. Mary the Virgin. Traces of it existed until 
recently in a south doorway of Norman architecture which was 
too crushed and shattered to be preserved. When the Early- 
English, Early-Decorated, and Perpendicular styles prevailed, 
the church underwent extensive alterations. In the first- 
mentioned period the chancel was greatly enlarged ; in the 
second, a.d. 1332, a chapel or south transept, dedicated to St. 
John the Baptist, was founded and erected by John de Appleby, 
rector of the parish ; and towards the close of the eighteenth 
century the nave windows were altered, and a vestry was added 
on the north side of the chancel. The attention of visitors 
is particularly directed to the curious Anglo-Saxon sculptures, 
and to the fragments of stone coffin lids, bearing portions of 
floriated crosses of early thirteenth century work, which have 
been collected and preserved. 

The tower was erected in 18 12, in place of a dilapidated 
steeple. It now contains five bells, throe of which were cast 
in 1776, by Henry Harrison, during the incumbency of Cuth- 
bert AUanson, rector, Peter Preston and John Wood being 
churchwardens. 



BRIMHAM ROCKS. 



"Niturehere, 
Wantoned as In her prime, ind played aC will 

her virgin fancies, 
Wild above rule or art." Paudise Lost. 

' HIS interesting and probably unique place of 
resort is generally visited, either by follow- 
ing the road that leads from Ripon to Studley ; 
or by a direct drive from Harrogate — a road 
formerly all but impassable, but now in iair condition. But 
the pedestrian may hnd it advantageous to alight at Dacre Banks 
station, from whence passing through the old village, he may 
enjoy a ramble up the moor. 

The mighty hand of Nature has seldom left a more magni- 
ficent scene. Afar off, the swelling precipice seems crowned 
by the wreck of a long desolated city. At a nearer view, the 
grim and hideous forms defy all discrimination and definition ; 
and, at length, when standing among them, our uncontrollable 
impression continues to be of perplexity and astonishment. 

Though, doubtless, taken advantage of by the aborigines of 
our country, for the purposes of worship, ordeal, or other 
public ceremonies ; still, it is fer, very far into the history of 
the crust of our world, that we must look for any explanation 



BRIMHAM ROCKS. 



^57 



of the formation of these rocks and their subsequent configur- 
ation. Natural causes, and those greatest in power and grand- 
est in result, will alone account for these stupendous monu- 
ments of ages prior to our ken. Deposited in deep, rough 
water, the loose sandy sediment, after long periods of time, 
became masses of rough red grit, which, being not strictly 
stratified, though partially so, were the result of what is known 
as '' false bedding." They were thus peculiarly liable to disin- 
tegration by water. **The rocks on the ridge of Brimham 
owe their forms almost entirely to the action of the sea during 
the Glacial period, at which time Brimham stood out as a little 
island, with its cliff facing the west. Frost and rain have, 
indeed, subsequently modified their shapes, but their effect has 
been very slight, and the rocks are now very much in the same 
condition as they were when the Glacial sea finally left them. 
Some of the rocks are split perpendicularly, as if the bed below 
had been washed away, and the rock, settling down, had broken 
into two or four across a ridge or point. Most of the rocks 
exhibit a remarkable series of horizontal grooves, from one to 
three feet in breadth, which may have been worn away by the 
action of sheets of ice, a foot or so in thickness. Again, many 
are perched one upon the other, a position which may be 
accounted for by the waste of the rocks around them, leaving 
the harder or less exposed ones in these singular situations." 

These rocks are, in short, but the Yemains of one vast and 
continuous bed of mill-stone grit, which covered the moor, and 
which, by water, by weather, and various other constant natural 
causes has been, slowly but surely, during the long course of 
many ages, consumed and corroded. The coarse sandy dust 
which is scattered around every block shows positively this 
certain work of disintegration. 

'' They are spread over a space extending sixty acres ; and 
the whole group, from the vast extent and bulk of its com- 
ponent parts, will afford a striking proof of the supremacy of 
Nature, in her operations, over the most gigantic efforts of 
art ; for Brimham, could it be transported to Salisbury Plain, 
would reduce Stonehenge itself to a poor and pigmy miniature." 



l60 BRIMHAM ROCKS. 

and 5 ft. thick, has been hurled from the summit, and remains, 
rent asunder, on the plain below. We are now required to 
descend to the base of the crag on which we have been stand- 
ing, and pass two stones termed the Druid's and Whale's Head. 

After ups and downs and scrambles through a most rugged 
pass, we emerge on the moor below the vertical face of the 
rock, whose shattered and contorted forms may here be sur- 
veyed <o advantage. By and by the Fish-mouth, Frog, and 
Monkey's Head Rocks, present themselves j and, near these, 
a large block of grit has the appearance of a piece of mounted 
ordnance, pointing to the west. 

A little to the east is a stupendous mass, which has been 
riven and disjointed, from top to bottom, into three main parts, 
leaving an hiatus of about four feet wide ; exhibiting, on the 
opposite faces, such an exact and particular conformity of linea- 
ments, as to demonstrate that they were once united, and 
formed together one huge compact block. 

It will, ere now, doubtless have been observed that cylin- 
drical apertures occur in many of the rocks, and of different 
diameters. Some perforate the craggy mass entirely 5 others 
reach only a few feet. Two of them, called the Cannon 
Rocks, which the visitor will now approach, are exceedingly 
remarkable. The diameter of their perforation is about 12 
in., which almost continues uniform from end to end, a space 
of about thirty feet. 

The Crown Rock is next shown, resembling the outwork 
of a dismantled castle. An opening in the north side is called 
the Druid's Oven ; and in the south is a cavity, shrewdly 
termed by the guide — with a significant glance at the dubious 
ascent — the Courting or Kissing Chair. Here, too, is exhibited 
a stone to which a freak of nature has given the form of a 
Sphinx's Head. * But the imagination tires of conjuring up 
so many shapes j for almost every stone that forms the rude 
grandeur of Brimham, is capable of being converted into the 
similitude of some natural or artificial object. Elevated on the 
southernmost range of crags, is a stupendous Rocking Stone, 
conjectured to weigh above an hundred tons, and visible even 



BRIMHAM ROCKS. l6l 

from Harrogate aad the surrounding country. The rich and 
varied scene which may be enjoyed from the summit of this 
Rocking Stone, will amply repay the trouble, if it does not some- 
times enhance the pleasure, of its ascent. On the west, a 
glorious prospect may ^ain be viewed of the Vale of Nidd. 
To the south, Harrogate, Harlow-hill tower, and other con- 
spicuous places present themselves. In the distant and fading 
landscape, on the banks of the Yore, may be seen Newby 
park and hall, near Ripon ; while many other interesting 
objects, which are pointed out by the guide, will be observed 
in the immediate foreground. ' Turning to the north-east, St. 
Michael's Mount again meets the eye, rearing its venerable and 
sylvan- crested head from woods that embosom the majestic pile 
of Fountains, and many a scene worthy of a pilgrimage. 



The monks, of Fountains held the manor of Brimham to 
the time of the dissolution of their house, in 1539, when it 
came, with the other rich possessions of that great monastery, 
to the hands of the crown. It was soon after granted out j 
and, after passing through spveral hands, came to the Nortons, 
of Grantley, by whose representative, the Right Hon. Fletcher 
Lord Grantley of MarkenfieM, it is with the chief estate there, 
at present possessed. 



NEWBY HALL. 

HE seat of Lady Mary Vyner, is situated on 
the northern bank of the Yore about four 
miles from Ripon, and thirfen from Harro- 
gate, commanding beautiful views of the sur- 
rounding country. The house was built 
about the year 1705, by Sir Edward Blacket, at an expense of 
32,000/. The situation was chosen, and the design made, by 
Sir Christopher Wren. The two wings, one of which con- 
tains the Statue Gallery, which was built by Mr, Weddell, and 
the Dining Room by Earl de Grey. On each side of the 
portico are two dogs, executed in Portland stone, copied from 
Alcibiades' dogs at Dunconibs Park. 

In the Entrance Hall is an excellent organ ; on the Jront 
of which is a fawn holding a sphinx ; and on the top, a lion, 
with a Cupid on his back, playing on a lyre. Here is a picture 
of St. Margaret, copied from Annibal Carracci i a fine land- 
scape with a group of cattle, by Rosa di Tivoli. 

The Great Staircase is adorned with two fine columns 
of beautiful Cipollini marble, with pilasters of the same; a 
large table of Sicilian jasper, upon a frame, richly carved and 
gilt; a picture of Judith shewing the head of Holofernes to 
the people, by Calibresi. On each side Is a bas-relief, one 
representing Pope Antoninus Pius, and the other the Triumph 
of Aurelian; a large portrait of William Weddell, Esq., by 
Baptista Battoni. 

The Library contains a valuable collection of books, and 
is admired for the richness of the painting. The ceiling is 
supported by four fluted pillars, with enriched Corinthian 
capitals, and divided into compartments, superbly painted with 
subjects of ancient mythology, by Zucchi. 

The Statue Gallery has been long admired, and 






NEWBY HALL. 163 

allowed to be one of the best private collections in the king- 
dom. The gallery is divided into three apartments, and the 
Statues are arranged in the following order : — 

First Apartment. Faun — Bacchus and Satyr — Geta — 
Ganymede and an Eagle — Galatea — two Urns — Epicurus — a 
bust of Hercules on an antique tripod, decorated with basso 
relievos, representing various figures of Bacchantes — Silenus. 

Second Apartment. Female, unknown — Brutus — Bust 
of Caracalla — a sitting Muse — Septimus Severus — Venus — 
Female, unknown — Bust of Caligula — Minerva — Alexander 
— Bust of Minerva — Faustina — ^Jupiter. 

Third Apartment. A Terminus — Man, unknown — 
Augustus — a Dacian king, on a sarcophagus — statue of Apollo 
— sitting figure of Marius, on a sarcophagus — two busts in 
basalt — antique Tripod, on which is a stork with a snake in his 
beak — an antique Tripod, with the bust of the late W. Wed- 
dell, Esq., by NoUikens — a bust of Lucilla — Negro's head in 
basalt — a boy playing a pipe — large antique Bath of veined 
marble, grey and white, capable of containing 200 gallons ; it 
rests on four feet representing the paws of a lion, with a lion's 
head sculptured above each. 

The statue most esteemed in this collection is one in the 
attitude of the Medicean Venus, formerly known by the name 
of the Barberini Venus. " It stands five feet one inch and a 
half high. Both arms, and the right leg, from the knee, are 
modern ; the head having been lost, is replaced by a beautiful 
head of Pudicita, of a suitable size, the veiled part having been 
worked to the resemblance of hair by the sculptor, Pacilli. 
This fine fragment had remained for a long time in the Bar- 
berini Palace, from whence it was purchased by Gavin Hamil- 
ton, who exchanged it with Pacilli. Jenkins possessed himself 
of it, and found a purchaser in Mr. Weddell. The antique 
parts are of genuine Greek performance, and it has been con- 
sidered as the best statue of Venus which has hitherto been 
brought to England. A bracelet is marked out on the upper 
part of the right arm. The marble is beautifully compact, and 
of a yellowish hue, retaining the ancient polish." 



1 64 



NEWBY HALU 



In the Ante-room there is a choice collection of China, and 
a number of curiosities ^ a portrait of Sir Charles Lucas, and 
other oil-paintings. 

The Drawing Room, which is hung with tapestry of the 
celebrated Gobelin's manu&ctory, at Paris, cannot be surpassed 
for richness and beauty. The subjects are, Venus rising out 
of the sea — Venus requesting Vulcan to complete the arms of 
^neas — Vertumnus and Pomona — Diana and Endymion. 
The ceiling is divided into compartments, elegantly wrought 
and richly gilt, in which are the Four Seasons — Diana accom- 
panied by Nymphs — Venus and the Graces — Phaeton attended 
by the Hours, all exquisitely painted by Zucchi. 

In the Dining Room, which is 38 feet by 24, built in 1808, 
is a very handsome chimney-piece, of black and veined marble, 
and three large alabaster urns, and niches. Here are also por- 
traits of the late Lord de Grey, his father, and his grandfather, 
a large picture of the Robinson Family, and a few other choice 
portraits. 



THE CHURCH, 

Dedicated to "Christ the Consoler," near to Skelton, is 
very picturesquely situated amid the trees, not far from the 
principal lodge gates of Newby Hall, and consists of a cleres- 
toried nave, north and south aisles, chancel, tower with spire 
at the east end of the north aisle, and south porch, erected in 
the style of the thirteenth century. The first and most strik- 
ing view which the visitor obtains is that presented to him as 
he leaves the village street and approaches the church from the 
south-east point. His eye rests upon a sculpytured figure of 
" Christ the Consoler," who, from under a canopy in the gable 
over the east window, is represented bending forward, as it 
were, to meet the parishioners, as they come along the church 
path, laden with sins and sorrows and troubles, and shewing 
His wounded hands, seems to say, " Come unto Me, all ye 
that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Cast 
all your care, all your anxieties, upon Me, for behold the tokens 



THE CHURCH. 



165 



of that love which I have shewn for you." The same com- 
forting and reassuring thought fills the heart, as it seems to be 
materially expressed in all parts of this magnificent, lovely, 
and most successful church. This edifice is a memorial of the 
late Frederick Grantham Vyner (the youngest son of Lady 
Mary Vyner), who was murdered by Greek Brigands in May 
1870 ; the foundation stone at the north east corner of the 
building bears this inscription : — '^ In Memory of Frederick 
Grantham Vyner, this church is built by his Mother, and dedi- 
cated to Christ the Consoler. This stone was laid May 17th, 
1871." 

Before entering, the visitor is recommended to inspect the 
exterior. By the approach from the village the chancel will 
be first examined. A five-light window of harmonious design 
occupies the whole width of the east end, and is surmounted 
by a crocketed label, whose finial supports the figure of Christ 
above alluded to. On each side of the gable are two massive 
buttresses, adorned with armorial bearings. The gable is 
crowned with a cross. The north and south side of this 
portion of the church are divided into three bays by buttresses, 
each bay has a two-light window, the spandrils in the tracery 
are adorned with very fine early English foliage. The Priest's 
door is on the south side. The whole is surmounted by a 
block and dental cornice with gurgoyles. Upon each stage 
of the chancel buttresses is a shield with the armorial bearings 
of families connected with that of the noble foundress. 

The tower and spire at the north side of the church cannot 
fail to captivate even a careless observer ; the tower is of four 
stages. The bell chamber in the fourth stage is lighted by two 
elaborate windows oh each side, and from the block and dental 
cornice above springs a spire to the altitude of sixty-six feet, 
whose surface is adorned with three bands of tracery ; at the 
angles are four octagonal pinnacles adorned with tracery at 
their base, and terminating in elaborate finials. Passing round 
by the tower to the west end, the visitor's attention will be 
engaged by the fine rose window, and the sculptures, introduced 
at four points of the outer circle, representing the ages of man : 



l66 THE CHURCH. 

— ^youth, manhood, decrepitude, and the last moments of life. 
Below the window is a blind trefoiled arcade. 

The porch has a foliated and richly-moulded outer doorway, 
over which, in the gable, under a triple canopy, is a beautiful 
sculptured representation of the Good Shepherd, bearing a 
tender lamb on His shoulders, and followed hy His sheep. 
Within the porch are female heads in high relief, that on the 
east side blindfolded, and turned westwards, representing the 
synagogue ; and that on the west side, crowned, and directing 
her gaze towards the altar, representing the christian church. 
On the boss of the groiniiig is the shield of Lady Mary Vyner, 
the foundress. The inner doorway is deeply moulded, and the 
hollows contain open flowers and delicate leaves. 

Interior. — The nave is of four bays, and is 64 feet long 
by 19 feet wide, and 42 feet high. The piers which support 
the nave have moulded bases, annulets and caps ; in front Irish 
black marble banded shafts are carried up the face of the 
clerestory walls, and terminate in corbels supporting the tie- 
beams. These corbels are sculptured to represent, on the 
north side, infancy, boyhood, and old age ; and, on the opposite 
side, childhood, manhood, and mature age. The arches of 
the nave are adorned with the tooth ornament, and the span- 
drils are filled in with cinquefoils, adorned with foliage cusps. 
Above is a noble clerestory of twenty-one lights, arranged in 
triplets ; a continuous arcade, whose arches spring off moulded 
capitals, supported by black marble shafts, enriches this part of 
the structure. The division of eich bay is marked by the 
shafts which rest on the base of the nave piers. The tie-beams 
and panelled waggon roof, as well as the aisle roofs, also panel- 
led, are of yellow pine. The aisle walls have a trefoiled arcade 
along their whole length, with black marble shafts, such as 
those in the clerestory. At the four angles of the nave are the 
evangelistic symbols, sculptured. as terminations to the labels of 
the nave arches. 

The chancel, rich in various coloured marbles, stained glass, 
and painted decorations, will arrest the attention of every 
visitor. It is raised one step from the level of the nave floor, 



THE CHURCH. 167 

and is appproached through a deeply moulded arch, whose piers 
of clustered columns, with charming early English capitals, 
produce a very beautiful effect. Over the chancel arch is an 
elaborate sculpture representing our Lord's Ascension ; and in 
the soffit of the arch are angels with upraised wings on Jacob's 
ladder. In the spandrils are two shields, that on the north side 
bearing the armorials of the present occupier of the See of 
Ripon, impaling the arms of the Diocese j and that on the south ' 
side belonging to the foundress. 

The east window, as well as* the windows on the north and 
south side, have a double suite of tracery, sup(>orted on marble 
shafts, which lend a richness and elegance to the east end of 
the church. Latterally it is divided into three bays, the first 
bay on each side being devoted to stalls for the family of the 
foundress ; the rest have an arcading on black marble columns, 
with trefoil heads ; rich diaper work is introduced above this 
arcading. The inner tracery of the east window is very fine, 
and in the spandrils of the sub-arches are sculptured figures of 
angels bearing censers. The tracery of the other windows are 
similarly treated, having black marble banded shafts, moulded 
bases and capitals. The clustered shafts of different coloured 
marbles with exquisitely carved capitals, divide the bays, and 
support the stone groining; at the intersection of the diagonal 
ribs are carved bosses — the ceiling being cemented for painting. 
The floor is laid with encaustic tiles, and the furniture and 
other fittings are in perfect harmony with this magnificent 
structure. 

The lowest stage of the tower forms the vestry, from which 
there is access to the pulpit through a doorway at the east end 
of the north aisle. Over the vestry is the organ chamber, and 
the organist is placed in a projecting loft or gallery, supported 
by a corbel richly sculptured with foliage and grotesque animals. 

In the west wall, under the rose window, is a trefoil-headed 
arcade with black marble shafts, running the width of the nave, 
above is a foliated cornice, and under the string course is the 
following text, carved in thirteenth century characters : 
" There is one God and one mediator between God and men. 






l68 THE CHURCH. 

the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all." 
(Taken from i. Tim., ii. 5). The seats are upon a wood 
floor, which is on the same level with the tile pavement. 

The font, which is at the west end of the south aisle, and 
the pulpit, both of which are exquisitely beautiful, are of marble. 

Stained Glass. — The aisle windows illustrate the Parables 
of our Lord, and the clerestory contain full length figures of 
the Prophets. In the centre of the rose window is Christ the 
Consoler, and around him are the various conditions of life. 
Chancel. — The east window has its five lights filled with 
stained glass, the centre compartment representing the cruci- 
fixion, and Christ bearing the cross, and on each side are the 
various types of that event from the Old Testament history, 
viz. : Noah's sacrifice, Manoah's sacrifice; Isaac bearing the 
wood, and Abraham's sacrifice ; the brazen serpent, and the 
Widow of Sarepta ; Moses smiting the rocjc, and Abel's 
sacrifice. In the centre of the upper tracery is the figure of 
Christ the Consoler. Underneath is the inscription, " Built 
by Lady Mary Vyner in memory of her son Frederick 
Grantham Vyner, murdered by Brigands 1870." The chancel 
windows on the north and east side contain scenes from the life 
of our Lord, and the types of the events. They are arranged 
in pairs, each light containing the type and the antitype. These 
windows are memorials to diflFerent members of the foundress's 
family. On the north side, Henrietta Frances, Countess dc 
Grey 5 Thomas Phillip, Earl de Grey ; Hon. Frederick W. 
Robinson. On the south side, Henry Vyner; Reginald Vyner; 
Theodosia Harriet, Marchioness of Northampton. The whole 
of the stained glass is by Saunders and Co., London, the 
cartoons having been prepared by Mr. F. Weekes. 

The architect of this costly structure is Mr. W. Burgess, 
London ; the builder, Mr. J. Thompson, Peterborough ; the 
clerk of the works, Mr. Sier, Kentish Town j the sculptor? 
Mr. T. Nicholes. 

The description of this church must necessarily be somewhat 
short ; but a more minute description and an engraving of the 
structure will be given in a special work. 



-, 



i 



BOROUGHBRIDGE. 

This small old town is situated on the south bank of the river 
Yore, on the great north road formerly called Ermine-street. 
In the old coaching days it enjoyed some importance, being on 
the high road to the north ; now, a few mills and a limited 
navigation are its only signs of busy life. It derives its name 
from a bridge of wood erected over the Yore, soon after the 
Norman Conquest, called Burgh-Bridge, in lieu of one that 
crossed the river opposite Milby. This place became a borough 
in the reign of queen Mary, in 1553, and sent two members to 
parliament, but was disfranchised by the passing of the reform 
bill, on the 7th of June, 1832. 

This town was, with Aldborough, and the manor and castle 
of Knaresborough, in the 15th Henry III., granted to Hubert 
de Burgh j but was forfeited in the same reign by his son, for 
aiding Simon de Montfort, at the battle of Evesham. This 
place remained in the possession of the crown until the reign of 
Edward II., when it was given by that monarch to his favourite. 
Piers Gavestone. 

It was here that, in 1321, the unfortunate prince Thomas, 
earl of Lancaster, with some of the nobility, disgusted with 
the royal favourites, the Spencers, made a stand against the 
forces of his nephew, Edward II., but was taken prisoner by 
Sir Andrew de Harcla, who, insensible to his entreaties and soli- 
citude, after inflicting every possible indignity that cruelty could 
suggest, mounted him on a lean horse, and brought him before 
the king, who, without any form of trial, ordered his head to 
be struck off, -on an eminence near Pontefract. One of his 
partisans, the powerful John de Bohun, earl of Hereford, in 
passing over the bridge, made of wood, was run through with a 
spear by a soldier who was hidden below. A handsome column 

of banded shafts with capitals, which formerly stood in the 
R 



1 70 BOROUGHBRIDGE. 

market-place, but has since been removed into a simitar position 
at Aldborough, may have been erected as a memorial of these 
events. 

The old church, which stood in unenclosed ground in the 
centre of the town, was taken down in 185 1. It showed 
remains of late Saxon and Early Norman work, and was said 
to date about 1 100. This vacant ground is now enclosed, and 
in the centre a fountain, supplied by an Artesian well, is erected 
to the memory of A, S. Lawson, Esq. 

In 1852 a new church, designed by Mallinson and Healey, 
of Bradford, and erected on a new site, was opened. It is 
dedicated to St. James, and accommodates 510 persons, with- 
out the chancel. The outline of the tower of the old church 
is preserved in the present design. A ring of six bells, cast by 
Mears and Co., was presented by the Baroness Burdett Coutts. 
The clock is by Potts, of Leeds ; and the organ by Hill and 
Son, London. Excellent schools were built in 1856, and a 
commodious parsonage house in 1862. There is also a new 
wesleyan chapel, more capacious than elegant. 

The Devil's Arrows, which consist of three large masses 
of gritstone, are on the south-west side of the town. In 
Leland's time there were four ; but, in the seventeenth century, 
one of them was either pulled down, or fell to the ground. A 
portion of it now forms the foundation of a foot-bridge over a 
small brook. Those which remain are placed at unequal dis- 
tances from each other, the central one being 199 feet from 
that on the north, and the one to the south 360 feet from the 
central obelisk. The tops are seemingly split and furrowed by 
the stealing hand of Time. The tallest (the central one) is 
30 feet 6 inches from the bottom, about six feet of which are 
buried in the ground. Its greatest circumference is 16 feet. 
The others are of nearly the same dimensions. In 1709, 
Mr. Morris, for forty years vicar of Aldborough, caused the 
ground to be opened, round the middlemost of these obelisks, 
nine feet in width. At first was found a good soil about a foot 
deep, and then a course of rough stones, of several kinds, but 
principally large pebbles, laid in a bed of coarse grit and clay, 



KIRBY HILL. I7I 

and so for four or five courses underneath, one upon another, 
round about the pyramid — in all probability to keep it upright : 
yet they all seem to incline a little to the south-east. Under 
the stones was a very strong clay, so hard that the spade could 
not penetrate it. This was nearly two yards from the surface 
of the earth j and a little lower was the bottom of the stone, 
resting flat upon the clay. As much of the stone as was 
within the ground, was a little thicker than what appeared 
above, and had the marks of a first dressing upon it ; it was a 
taxata non perdolata ferro. The nearest quarry from which 
they can have been hewn is at Plumpton, near Harrogate. 
Why they were erected is a matter of much doubt. They 
may have been memorial stones of either events or celebrated 
persons, long since forgotten ; they may have played a part in 
Druidical rites ; they may have been stationes in Roman cele- 
brations ; or, probably, meta in chariot races. But the anti- 
quary will naturally compare them with other monoliths in our 
island, especially the " Rudstone," on the Yorkshire wolds. 



KIRBY HILL. 

The antiquary should, by all means, turn aside and wander for 
about a mile north from Boroughbridge to visit the interesting 
little church of All Saints, Kirby Hill. In 1870 it was skil- 
fully and cautiously restored by Sir G. G. Scott. In the course 
of the works remains of the Saxon and Norman, the Early 
English, and the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, were 
clearly made out and have been scrupulously preserved'. It is 
a fine example of restoration as it should be done. The east 
window has some fine modern glass, by Hardman. The organ 
is a good specimen of one suited to a village church, and is by 
Hill and Son. 



ALDBOROUGH. 

Aldburgh, or Aldborough, so called by the Normans, is the 
Iseur of the ancient Britons, and the Isurium of the Romans. 
This once celebrated city, which has, ever since the days of 
Leland, arrested the attention and engaged the particular notice 
of British antiquaries, is now sunk into a small village. It is 
situate on the south bank of the river Yore, about half a mile 
from Boroughbridge, and comprises about 107 houses, and a [ 
parish church, dedicated to St. Andrew. The houses, although 
much detached from each other, are chiefly within the walls of 
the old city, with the exception of one, which has been partly 
erected upon the wall itself. It was the metropolis of the 
Brigantes, and many British princes resided here. Agricola, 
after subduing the Brigantes in the year 80, fixed his head 
quarters here. In 870 it had grown to such importance as to 
attract the fury of th^ Danes, who, after cruelly murdering the 
inhabitants, burnt the city to the ground. .The Norman con- 
queror, by diverting the road and removing the bridge over the 
Yore to Boroughbridge, seriously injured its position. In the 
time of the Romans it was defended by a strong wall, having a 
circumference of 2177 yards, and enclosing an area of 60 acres. 
Two principal roads, the one from the south. Ermine- street, 
and the other intersecting it at right angles, and still called the 
Roman road, passed through its centre. 

Wherever the spade has been used for any purpose, abun- 
dant remains have been laid bare in and about various cottages 5 
and a most interesting museum is collected at the manor house. 
The principal of these are tesselated and mosaic pavements of 
great size and beauty. One of the finest is the floor of a 
Basilica, with a Greek inscription in blue glass ; and another 
has, as its centre, a lion rampant. Numbers of coins, mostly 
brass, though some few are silver, have been found. They 



ALDBOROUGH. 



173 



represent Constantine, Carausius, Maximilian, Dibclesian, Va- 
lerian, Severus, Aurelian, as well as Faustina and Julia. Signet 
stones, Samian ware, mortaria, iron knives, deer horns, bone 
pins, circular tickets for amusements, dice, spoons, fibulae, and 
various domestic refuse have turned up, to tell a story of life 
and death within these walls. 

In 1794, the foundations of the city wall being laid open for 
the purpose of procuring stone, the breadth was discovered to 
bs about 15 feet, and the depth nearly of the same dimensions. 
The first seven feet were composed of rough grit, mixed with 
lime and sand ; the other eight consisted of large pebbles, or 
paving stones, laid in a bed of blue clay, and interstices filled 
up with hard- cement of lime, sand, and gravel. Near the 
foundation were discovered part of a sacrificing vessel, pieces 
of urns, several pieces of millstone grit, horns of deer sawed 
off, the head of a cow in brass, and another supposed to be the 
figure of Isis. 

In 181 1, a plain Roman monument was found, on which is. 
the following inscription : — 

DM 

FIL CVIE 

COLUGS 

KARIS 

C. M. P. 

F. CVR. 

Edward II. granted the extraordinary privilege to the inhab- 
itants of trying, condemning, and executing criminals — and the 
scene of action, it appears, was Borough-hill. The gallows 
was afterwards removed to a place called Gibbet-hill. 

The family of Aldburgh resided here as proprietors for many 
ages. The last of the male line remained here till 1727. 

The church, mostly fourteenth century work, seems to have 
been built out of the remains of the Roman town. It is a 
regular and substantial edifice, evincing the munificence and 
liberality of its founders, and, in latter times, the attention and 
good taste of a wealthy resident family. It consists of a nave 
with side aisles, chancel, and tower at the west end. The 



'74 



ALDBOROUGH. 



architecture is of the Perpendicular style. Octagonal piers, 
supporting pointed arches, and finished with most grotesque 
masks, divide the nave from the aisles. A figure of Mercuiy 
is conspicuous in the wall of the vestry ; and in the church- 
yard, on a stone, is cut in relief, the bust of a woman in a 
Saxon habit, in the attitude of prayer. 

In the north aisle, placed against the wall, is a large and 
perfect figure in brass, of a young knight, in plate armour and 
gorget of link mail, with the hands uplifted, and holding a 
human heart. On his breast and shield are the arms of Aid- 
burgh : — Argent a fesie dancetie^ between three crosslets botone 
azure. Under his feet is inscribed — Will's de : Aldeburgh. 
Another memorial of the Aldburghs was found inverted in the 
south aisle during the late repairs of the church. It bears the 
following inscription : — 
Orate pro a'i'a Willi Aldburgh armigi, qui obiit xv 

DIE Aprili, 
Anno d'ni millimo cccc^lxxv, anime p'picietur deus 
Amen. 

Running round the oak pulpit there is : — Pasce oves : pasce 

AGNOS. 

In the tower are six bells. The two oldest have die foUow^- 
ing sentences on a fillet near the top of each : — 

Ora pro nobis Sancte Toma, 

Benedicti sit nomen Domini. 
On the largest bell is inscribed : — 

JESVS BE OVR SPEED. 1627. 

Most q£ the windows are filled with modern stained glass. 



HARROGATE. 



Hec reuluta senum conltrmat membia trcmennim, 
£[ nfonl nervos locHi hxc lympha gelatos. 
Hue InHrtna regunt baculis vestigb cliudi, 
Ingrati [cferunC baculis vesdgia spretib. 

HOBBIS, Dt M»AB[LIBU3 PiCCI. 

ARROGATE, like most watering places of re- 
nown, had but an humble and obscure origin. 
In the earliest periods to which our written his- 
tory extends it lay an undistinguished and probably 
untenanted spot in the forest of Knaresborough ; 
and it was not until the emparkment of a portion of that great 
sylvan range at Haywra, that — from the road which led thither 
from the fortress on the Nidd — it became known as Haywra- 
gate. 

As the time of the emparkment of Haywra is uncertain, so 
must be the designation of the road that led thither. In a 
charter granted by Richard Earl of Cornwall, about 1257, to 
the house of St. Robsrt at Knaresho rough, there is mention of 



176 HARROGATE. 

the road which turns from that town towards ^* Heywra," and 
the application of sainted appellations to some of the springs at 
Harrogate, indicates that they — if not in their present efficacy — 
were observed during the mediaeval period. Yet the huts that 
were scattered by the way-side might not, even in this century, 
have lost much of their humble character, if the occurrence of 
an accidental circumstance had not suddenly changed th^ir 
fortune. 

It was this : Captain William Slingsby, a younger brother of 
the family that for several centuries has resided at Scriven, 
about three miles from this place, visited, during the latter half 
of the sixteenth century, the waters of Sauveniere in Germany, 
and received benefit. On his' return he observed, as too many 
have done, that he had left a remedy of equal efficacy at home ; 
— was wise enough to avail himself of the benefit ; — gratefully 
built a protection over the spring ; — and spread the glad tidings 
of its utility among the marvelling population around. 

While a series of cures were in performance, some of which, 
says Dr. Short, " are perhaps the greatest and most remarkable 
filed up in the authentic records of physic, down from Hippo- 
crates to this day," Dr. Stanhope, an ingenious physician of 
York, discovered in 1631, at High Harrogate, another Chaly- 
beate spring, to which, in distinction to the sulphur waters, he 
gave the name of the " Sweet Spa.*' In the year after, when 
he wrote his dissertation on the mineral waters near Knare's- 
borough — for, by that general designation, be it remembered, 
these springs at Harrogate were then, and long after, compre- 
hended — the sulphur waters were rising in reputation, though 
they were chiefly frequented by the common people ; and our 
author confessed " what are its inward uses we know not yet." 
It was fortunate, however, that in this absence of information, 
the merits of the sulphuretted springs forced themselves on 
attention ; for a controversy soon after arose, touching the 
relative merits of the Scarborough and Harrogate Chalybeate 
waters ; and, with the fate that has attended many once fashion- 
able watering places, our spa might have become unfrequented 
and unregarded, had not the sulphur water retained its popularity. 



i 



HARROGATE. 



177 



With the social progress of the eighteenth century, Harro- 
gate rose and prospered. Its accommodations increased with 
the domestic economy and civilization of the times, and the 
number of visitors with that accumulation of wealth, which 
commercial skill and enterprise had dealt to the hands of so 
many — until, at the present day, by the centralisation of many 
species of medicinal waters — the superiority of the most im- 
portant class — the beauty of the surrounding country — and the 
diversity of amusements, Harrogate has become, and by its 
many undeveloped attractions and the permanent character of 
its excellencies, bids fair to remain, one of the most interest- 
ing, eligible, and beneficial watering places in the empire. 

High and Low Harrogate form, as far as parochial matters 
and other greater local interests are concerned, two distinct 
villages, whose line of division, two brooks, is not obvious to 
the eye. The former is in the parish of Knaresborough, the 
other in that of Pannal ; but, until the formation of the 
bishopric of Ripon, a more singular distinction prevailed j for 
the former was in the jurisdiction of the see of Chester — the 
latter in that of York. 

The parishioners of High Harrogate attended divine service, 
by an inconvenient journey of three miles, until the year 1749, 
when, by the subscription of the interested parties, and a dona- 
tion of 50/. from Lady Elizabeth Hastings, a chapel was erected. 
In 183 1 it needed so much extension that its removal was 
deemed preferable, and the materials were alienated for the 
formation of '* The Independent Chapel," near Prospect-place. 
The structure which succeeded it was built in the same year, 
and affords an accommodation of 1200 sitttings, of which 800, 
designated by labels, are "free." Under the provisions of the 
Act, 58 Geo. III., c. 45, a district parish has very properly 
been assigned to this church. It was further enlarged by the 
addition of transepts and chancel in 1861. St. John's church, 
Bilton, erected at the cost of the late William Sheepshanks, 
Esq., was opened for divine service in 1856. It is an elegant 
and substantial specimen of Early-English architecture, designed 
by Sir George G. Scott, A.R.A., and will accommodate 600 



178 



HARROGATE. 



hearers. St. Peter's church, Central Harrogate, was com- 
menced in 1870. This is also a district parish. 

Low Harrogate, whicK is three miles from its parish church, 
first obtained the benefit of a separate place of worship in 1824, 
when St. Mary's church was erected, after much exertion, 
aided by the commissioners of the million act. A chancel and 
other improvements were added in 1865. All Saints church, 
Harlow-hill, was opened for public worship in 1870, for the 
benefit of the outlying districts towards the west. It will 
accommodate about 217 hearers. There is a burial ground 
attached. 

The dissenters have exhibited their wonted alacrity in pro- 
viding spiritual instruction for the strangers of their several 
persuasions. The Wesleyan chapel, erected in 1824, in 
Chapel-street, proving too small for the increasing numbers of 
the society, was abandoned, and the present large and commo- 
dious structure built in the same street in i86i. The Congre- 
gational church is situate in Prospect-place. It is in the 
Decorated style of architecture, with a tower and spire 100 
feet high, and was built in 186 1. The United Methodist Free 
Church, near the railway station, has also a tower and spire. 
It was erected in 1865. The quakers built a meeting house in 
Chapel-street, in 1854. The primitive methodists erected a 
large and elegant chapel on Cheltenham Mount, in 1873. The 
inhabitants and visitors attached to the Romish faith perform 
their devotions in the spacious church in St. Robert's-street, 
built in 1873. The Harrogate cemetery, situate to the north 
of the town, was consecrated in 1864. 

And now of the Waters themselves. In a publication 
like the present, intended for general circulation, it is of course 
unavailing to dissertate on the component parts and application 
of waters, of which it is sufficient for the majority that they 
drink "in faith, nothing doubting.'* The chemist has had, 
already, the advantage of several careful and judicious obser- 
vations and analyses ; and to those who are driven hither more 
by necessity than pleasure, I would recommend, in the words 
of Dr. French, that they apply themselves to some experienced 



HARROGATE. 1 79 

physician, who shall be able to understand their constitution, 
distemper, and the nature and use of the waters themselves ; 
that accordingly, as cause shall require, the more successful 
preparations may be administered, and the more effectual direc- 
tions given. 

THE TEWIT WELL, 

on the common, to the east side of the Prince of Wales hotel, 
and near the Leeds and Harrogate road, has not only prece- 
dency of its companions, but of all similar waters in the county. 
Its history, which has been much garbled, is best conveyed in 
the original words of Dr. Dean's Spadacrene Anglica^ published 
in 1626. '*It was discovered first," says he, "about fifty 
years ago, by one Mr. William Slingsby, who had travelled in 
Germany in his younger years, seen and been acquainted with 
theirs ; and as he was of an ancient family near the place, so 
he had fine parts, and was a capable judge. He lived sometime 
at a grange house near it ; then removed to Bilton park, where 
he spent the rest of his days. He, using this water yearly, 
found it exactly like the German spaw. He made several 
tryals of it, then walled it about and paved it in the bottom 
with two large stone flags, with a hole in their sides for the free 
access of the water, which springs up only at the bottom 
through a chink or cranny left on purpose. Its current is always 
nearly the same, and is about the quantity of the Sauvenir, 
to which Mr. Slingsby thought it preferable, being more brisk 
and lively, fuller of mineral spirits, of speedier operation: 
he found much benefit by it. Dr. Tim. Bright, about thirty 
years ago (1596), first gave it the name of ' T^he English Spaw.* 
Having spent some time at those in Germany, he was a judge 
of both, and had so good an opinion of ours that he sent many 
patients hither yearly, and every summer drank the waters upon 
the place himself. And Dr. Anthony Hunter, late physician 
of Newark-upon-Trent, often chided us physicians in York for 
not writing upon it, and deservedly setting it upon the wings 
of fame." 



l80 HARROGATE. 

Though it has of late been indulged with the old cast-ofF 
dome from the Sulphur well, the memorable '* English Spaw " 
still remains, after all the benefits it has conferred and all the 
praise it has received, in something like its pristine humility, 
and deserted, until lately, for those that have better advocates, 
and a more commodious position. For a trifling gratuity to the 
inmates of an adjacent cottage, the visitor may still enjoy the 
undiminished benefit that it offers, and test, in his own person, 
the truth of Dr. French's recommendation : that '* it occasions 
the retention of nothing that should be evacuated, and, by 
relaxation, evacuates nothing that should be retained ; that it 
dries nothing but what's too moist andldaccid, and heats nothing 
but what's too cold, and e contra ; and that, * tho' no doubt there 
are some accidents and objections to the contrary,' it makes the 
lean fat, the fat lean, cures the cholick, and melancholy, and 
the vapours j " and that — fair reader — '* it cures all aches 
speedily, and cheareth the heart.'** 



THE SWEET SPA. 

In 1 63 1, only five years after Dr. Dean had set the Tewit 
well " on the wings of fame," Dr. Stanhope discovered another 
chalybeate well, about a quarter of a mile from it, not far from 
the Plumpton and Wetherby road, and took " leave to adver- 
tise " the public of the same, in that now rare tract, styled 
** Cures without Care^ or a summons to all such as find little or no 
help by the use of Physick to repair to the Northern Spaw.** It 
has the advantage of a more elevated and commanding situation 
than the Tewit well. It seems to have acquired distinction 
soon after its discovery 5 for, in .1656, great pains were taken 
to form a square terrace, sixty yards on each side, no vestiges 
of which remain. In 1786, Alexander, Lord Loughborough, 
who owned some property in the township, and was interested 
in the prosperity of Harrogate, generously erected a stone 
canopy over the spring, which was removed in 1842, when the 
present neat building was substituted. 



HARROGATE. 



i8x 



THE OLD SULPHUR WELLS. 



Though the sulphur waters engaged attention in the early 
part of the seventeenth century, and were then used, both inter- 
nally and externally, it seems doubtful whether the well, now 
so justly celebrated, was much resorted to until the concluding 
period of the Commonwealth, when Dr. George Neale, of 
Leeds, a benevolent and enlightened man, applied himself to 
the promotion of their use, and the advancement of their con- 
dition, with a spirit that deserves a lasting memorial at the 
hands even of this distant generation. In a posthumous paper 
that has been published by Dr. Short, he thus records the pre- 
servation of the means by which thousands have been blessed : 
— ''There are {circ, 1676), and were about twenty years ago, 
three springs close together, very law and scarce of water^ that 
all of them did not afford sufficient water for drinking and bath- 
ing. Wherefore, for the convenience of the drinkers, I thought 
it convenient to take up the uppermost spring, which is weakest 
and slowest of them, and made a large basin to contain several 
hogsheads of water, and covered it with a large stone to pre- 
serve it from the sun and rain water ; and for a week together 
we rammed its sides with clay to prevent other springs from get- 
ting in. The event answered expectation : for we had a fresh 
spring of much better and stronger water ^ which afforded as much 
in one liour now as it did in twenty-four before^ more loaded with 
the minerals than ever^ and so of greater efficacy for either 
bathing or drinking." It is a remarkable fact, in the impreg- 
nation of these waters, that the second spring, which has been 
generally covered up, is not half the strength of the first or 
chief well, though it is but a yard distant from it. The third, 
which is about i6ft. removed, though very potent, contains, 
like the weak well, a trace of sulphate of soda, which the old 
well does not. Being open to the public like the rest, it has 
been chiefly reserved for baths, and transmission to distant parts 
of the kingdom. To these three wells, an addition, very 
unwelcome at the time but very useful since, was made about 
a century ago, when a man, who, under the protection of a 



1 82 HARROGATE. 

lease from the earl of Burlington, had acquired a right of 
searching for minerals in the Forest of Knaresborou^, preten- 
ded to dig for coal, where the three sulphur wells are situate. 
From this attempt, the innkeepers and others at Harrogate, who 
were interested in the preservation of the wells, persuaded him 
to desist by the payment of lOO/. *' Sulphur water, however,'* 
says the late bishop of LlandafF, who records the story, " had 
risen up where he had begun to dig : they enclosed the place 
with a little stone edifice, and, putting down a basin, made a 
fourth well." 

In 1804 ^^^ principal well was distinguished by a large dome 
supported by pillars ; and thus it remained, with some minor 
improvements, until 1842 ; when, in justice to the importance 
of the spa, and the proper and prudent conservation of its waters, 
the commissioners, under the Harrogate Improvement Act, 
resolved to enclose the springs in a reasonable and efficient 
manner. An octagonal pump room, of ample dimension and 
afSpropriate decoration, was erected from the design of Mr. 
Shutt, a native of Harrogate, and opened on the 23rd of July 
in that year ; but that this laudable arrangement might not 
interfere with the means or inclination of those who could not 
or would not afford a trifling gratuity to the attendant, a pump 
— available under restrictions consequent only on the preserva- 
tion of the water — is placed without the walls. 

THE MONTPELLIER OR CROWN SULPHUR WELL, 

About 200 yards east of the old wells, is private property. It 
was found in 1822, and is enclosed together with the saline 
chalybeate pump, connected with a spring at a small distance, 
in an elegant pump room. The public have the benefit of 
these powerful springs by a trifling subscription ; obtaining also 
thereby the gratification of walking in the adjacent pleasure- 
ground. 

In the autumn of 1835 the proprietor of the Crown hotel 
sunk a well on his premises, 82 ft. distant from the old sulphur 
well, which was supposed to be thereby seriously injured. He 
was, consequently, indicted under the provisions of the Knares- 



HARROGATE. I 83 

borough Forest Enclosure Act : but before the arguments were 
concluded, consented to surrender the room which enclosed it 
to the use of the public, for whose use he was required also to 
put down a pump. The order of the court, which was also 
made a rule of the Court of King's Bench, enjoined that " the 
room be opened to the public from six in the morning until six 
in the evening, of each day, and that the defendant shall only 
use the pump and water in common with the rest of the 
public y " though he was allowed to possess a key, apart from 
that used by the commissioners. He engaged also not to 
deepen any of the other wells on his premises. 

THE KNARESBOROUGH, OR STARBECK SPA, 

Is situate midway between Harrogate and Knaresbrough, and 
about 200 yards from the Starbeck station, on the north-eastern 
line of railway. It obtained notice at an early period, and was 
one of the three sulphur springs which Dr. Dean, in 1826, 
considered ''worthy of the physician's observation." The 
subsequent improvement of the wells at Low Harrogate super- 
seded its benefits, which — elsewhere — would have been invalu- 
able j and, in 1822, neglect and some degree of jealousy had so 
far combined, that its site was almost unknown. In that year 
the inhabitants of Knaresborough did justice to the valuable gift 
committed to their charge, by erecting an appropriate building 
over it, with a suite of baths, and a residence for the attendant. 
Its quality seems particularly adapted to delicate constitutions, 
and it has afforded relief when stronger waters have failed. 

SALINE CHALYBEATE, OR ROYAL CHELTENHAM 

PUMP ROOM. 

The discovery of a water, which united the properties of a 
tonic, an aperient, and an alterative, was one of the greatest 
benefits that had occurred to Harrogate since the establishment 
of the old sulphur well. It was found, together with the 
adjacent chalybeate, by Mr. Oddy, in 18x9, while searching 
for sulphur water to supply the baths ; and at the lower end of 
the little valley that has disclosed the chief wells of Low Har- 



184 HARROGATE. 

rogate. The former of these springs is now called the " Dr. 
Muspratt Chalybeate," and the latter the "Carbonate of Iron 
Spring." When the reputation of Harrogate became based on 
something more than the ephemeral attractions of a place of 
fashionable resort, the original pump-room was superseded by a 
spacious building, erected by the proprietor, Mr. Williams, in 
1835. Not only the conservation of the water, but the amuse- 
ment of its visitors is secured in this saloon, which is 100 feet 
long, 33 feet wide, and 27 feet high, for it affords the frequent 
enjoyment of the first musical talent in the kingdom 5 and 
other similar sources of refined pleasure. The appurtenant 
grounds are laid out with considerable effect, and afford — 
within limits more diversified than the site would induce many 
to suppose — a promenade of more than a mile in extent. 

THE MONTPELLIER SALINE CHALYBEATE SPRING 

was discovered, some years ago, in the gardens of the Crown 
hotel. It was not generally used for some time after j but is 
now supplied from a pump, adjoining that of the sulphuretted 
spring previously noticed, and is sometimes styled the Kissengen 
Spring. 

There are several other springs, both sulphuretted and chaly- 
beate, at Low Harrogate ; but none require particular obser- 
vation here. 

HARLOW CARR SPRINGS. 

The recent introduction of these wells to public notice has 
not only afforded a valuable remedy by which the sufferings of 
a large class of the visitors to Harrogate maybe more effectually 
mitigated, than by the use of any of the numerous collection 
already to be found there ; but at the same time an agreeable 
place of resort will be gained when seclusion is also necessary, 
or exercise can be induced or enhanced by scenes of rural beauty. 

Their situation is in Harlow Carr, one of those small but 
picturesque valleys that intersect this part of the country; 
upwards of a mile from the Brunswick hotel, and beyond the 



HARROGATE. 1 85 

tower, on the road from Harrogate to Otley. A small rivulet 
rurts not far from the wells, and afterwards contributes, in a 
series of pools and bubbling falls, in its rocky passage through 
the woods, to produce a pleasing and effective variety in this 
secluded sylvan retreat. 

There are several springs, both of sulphur and chalybeate 
water, in the grounds ; but three only of the former, and one 
of the latter quality, are used at present. 

A suite of ten baths, either for hot or cold water, with two 
shower baths, have also been provided in a detached building 
near the wells, each side having a waiting room and every other 
requisite convenience. 

THE BATHS. 

The benefit of an external application of the waters was 
perceived, and the absence of the means lamented, by Dr. Dean, 
in his tract of 1626. Dr. Neale — the great patron of Harro- 
gate — introduced warm sulphuretted baths, " and procured one 
such vessel for a pattern as are used, beyond sea, for that pur- 
pose." To this primaeval provision — the purgatory of which 
Smollet amusingly records in '' Humphrey Clinker " — the 
inhabitants were content to subject their patrons, until the late 
Mr. Williams had the spirit to construct the Victoria Public 
Baths, which were superseded in 1870 by a large and elegant 
suite of baths erected at the cost of the Harrogate Improve- 
ment Commissioners, which far surpass, in comfort and elegance, 
anything hitherto seen in the north of England. 

Two years afterwards, Mr. Thackwray fitted up the Mont- 
pellier Public Baths ; and by their luxurious and varied accom- 
modation and peculiar adaption for invalids, completed all that 
this *' useful branch of medical hygiene requires." 

The peculiarly mild quality of the Star beck water has also 
been made available to those who are deterred from the baths 
at Low Harrogate, by the erection there, in 1828, of suitable 
apartments, and the provision of respectable attendants. 

And lastly, it may not be irrelevant to remind those who 

have experienced the remedial effects of these waters, that 
s 



1 



1 86 HARROGATE. 

their gratitude may not find a more appropriate or beneficial 
course than by alleviating, through the medium of the Harro- 
gate Bath Hospital, the sufferings of those unfortunate fellow- 
creatures, for whom Providence has provided a remedy, which 
their circumstances have not enabled them to apply. 

HOTELS. 

The accommodation afforded by the several hotels — ^too well 
known to need enumeration here — is such as will cause no class 
of society to regret the appliances and comforts of their own 
homes. " The Queen " was erected first, and as early as 1687. 
For those whose constitution or disposition forbids public associ- 
ation, there arc several highly respectable boarding houses, and 
numerous lodging houses. 

RECREATION. 

An abundance of recreation is afforded to those who visit 
Harrogate as a periodical relaxation from sedentary pursuits and 
engrossing avocations. The race course, laid out in 1793, 
favours equestrian exercise, and, occasionally, the amusement 
for which it was intended. There are billiard tables in all the 
principal hotels. I need remind none who remember Harro- 
gate, and retain a soft side of the heart, of the attractive balls 
that are enjoyed at the Queen, Granby, and Crown hotels 5 
nor, of those excursions, by which many acquaintances that 
have been acquired there, are, and we hope long will be, 
renewed and improved. 

And, lastly, there is an infinity of amusement at the Tower 
on Harlow Hill, which though of the altitude of 596 feet 
above the level of the sea, is easy of ascent. The elevation 
of the tower to the height of 100 feet gained a bewildering and 
most imposing panoramic prospect, which can be viewed by the 
aid of seven mounted telescopes. I have understood from 
those, whose optical capacities are more fortunate than my own, 
that the Peak in Derbyshire, and the tower of a church in Hull, 
may be seen in a clear atmosphere — though the latter is distant 
sixty miles ! 



HARROGATE 

ANALYSES OF THE PRINCIPAL WELI^, BY DR. 

DR. MUSPRATT, AND DR. MILLER. 



187 



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BOLTON PRIORY. 



law h then stillness 



Wfaarfe shill be 



'Force or Prater.' 



URING the visitor's sojourn at Harr<^te, one 

day, at least, must be spent at Bolton. Its 

elegant ruins, and its unusually picturesque 

situation, cannot fail to charm every lover of 

lature and art. 

1 1 20, William de Meschines and Cecily his 
wife, the heiress of Robert de Romille, to whom William the 
Conqueror granted vast possessions in Craven, founded at 




■b*i««k-^dWil^^K>«aMna«B*iaaaBaaa*MMrfHiAri^iaM 






BOLTON PRIORY. 1 89 

Embsay, two miles east of Skipton, a priory for Augustinian 
canons, to the honour of the Virgin Mary and St. Cuthbert. 

After the death of the founders, and in the year 1151, thirty- 
one years subsequent to the period of the foundation, Alice de 
Romille, their elder daughter and coheiress, who retained her 
mother's name of Romille, and before her decease had married 
William Fitz-Dtincan, nephew to David king of Scotland, is 
said, in an ancient record which formerly belonged to the Priory, 
to have translated the foundation to Bolton. 

There is generally some wild legend connected with the 
origin of our monastic foundations ; and a tradition, that had 
not passed away in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
affirmed that this circumstance took place in consequence of 
the Boy of Egremond, the only surviving son of the second 
foundress, having been drowned in attempting to cross the 
Strid, an unusually narrow part of the river Wharfe j and 
that Bolton was selected as being the nearest eligible site to 
where the misfortune happened. 

The legend cannot, however, be implicitly received 5 for, 
when Alice gave the canons her manor of Bolton in exchange 
for their manors of Skibdun and Stretton, her son William-— 
and in a pedigree, exhibited to parliament in 131 5, he is set 
down as her only son — appears in the charter as a consenting 
party to the transaction. Dr. Whitaker conjectured, there- 
fore, that it might refer to one of the sons of the first foun- 
dress, both of whom died young ; but, I think it may be better 
reconciled with this stubborn piece of evidence by supposing 
that the manor of Bolton had been exchanged, for the conve- 
nience of Alice, before the accident ; and that, subsequently, 
the canons were glad to find a pretext, in her disconsolate 
lamentation, for descending from the bleak and cheerless heights 
of Embsay, to the warm and sheltered seclusion of their newly 
acquired possession. 

But, whatever may have been the truth of this dim and 
faded story, we should rejoice that it lingered long enough to 
be revivified — phoenix-like — fi-om its ashes, in the memorable 
lays of Rogers and Wordsworth. 



"I 



190 BOLTON PRIORY. 

After having existed upwards of four hundred years the 
foundation was surrendered by Richard Moon, the prior, and 
fourteen of his brethren on the 29th of January, 1540. On 
the 3rd of April, 1542, the site, with many of the possessions 
of the house, were granted to Henry Clifford, first earl of 
Cumberland, but nineteen days before his death, for the sum of 
2490/., ^^a consideration less than ten years purchase, upon the 
low rental of that place." From him they have descended 
to the present noble owner, the duke of Devonshire. 

*' The ruins of this celebrated Priory stand upon a beautiful 
curvature of the Wharfe, sufficiently elevated to protect it from 
inundation, and low enough for every purpose of picturesque 
effect ; " in which respect, the competent judgment of Whit- 
aker has pronounced that " it has no equal among the northern 
houses — perhaps not in the kingdom." Its site is so shut in 
by rising ground and embosomed in trees, that the visitor, who 
has come from Harrogate, across the wilds of Knaresborough 
forest, may not be aware that he is approaching it, until he is 
almost on the spot. 

The bridge retains no vestige of that structure which was 
built, or rebuilt in 1314; but the following quaint inscription 
may yet be seen graven on an oaken beam in a cottage at the 
south-west angle that most likely occupies its site. 

^j^olo sat past^sst ($ gist foaj; one aue maria ]&ete gofo j$a||« 

There is a pleasant footpath from the bridge, across this fer- 
tile plain, to the abbey 5 but strangers generally proceed a few 
hundred yards further down the road, and enter the abbey close 
by an opening in the boundary wall. 

BOLTON HALL. 

The ancient gateway of the Priory is nearly opposite the 
west front of the church 5 and is a substantial work of the 
Perpendicular era, not irrespective of defence. As it had not 
been erected very long before the dissolution of the house, the 
arches were closed, and it was soon after fitted up as an occa- 
sional place of retirement for the Cliffords ^ or as a residence 



BOLTON PRIORY. I9I 

for one of their stewards. It has been enlarged by the duke of 
Devonshire, who retires here during the shooting season. 

HISTORICAL NOTICE OF THE PRIORY. 

The shell of the priory church remains entire, and the nave 
is still used as a parochial chapel. It exhibits all the styles of 
architecture that prevailed from the period of its foundation to 
its dissolution ; and some in a degree of excellence that has 
not often been surpassed. The choir was evidently the first 
work of the canons, after, or more probably a little prior to, 
their translation ; and from thence the work proceeded west- 
ward, a considerable . time having elapsed, if we may judge 
from the progressive character that is exhibited, before they 
brought it to a conclusion. 

The domestic buildings were probably built simultaneously 
with the choir, and nearly contemporary with the completion 
of the thurch, might be the erection of the chapter-house, and 
the introduction of the sedilia in the choir. 

But the canons were not long content with the structure of 
their church. We are not directly informed at what period 
they resumed operations ; but as the Compotus of the House 
from 1290 to 1325, contains no payments on that account, we 
have this strong confirmation of existing architectural evidence, 
that it was soon after the latter period, that the old Norman 
choir was deemed iAcompatible with the condition of their 
House, and a new structure, exhibiting the more airy effect and 
elegant forms of the Decorated style, was substituted on its 
foundation. Nearly the whole of the choir was rebuilt at this 
period. The south transept was also then, apparently, renewed 
from the foundation : and ramified windows introduced into the 
opposite member of the cross aisle. So great, indeed, was their 
disposition for improvement, that they rebuilt the aisle of the 
nave, and added a parapet and battlements to the Early English 
clerestory above. 

After the lapse of nearly two centuries, the spirit of renova- 
ation again moved the House : and while Richard Moon — 



192 



BOLTON PRIORY. 



a native of the adjacent village of Hazlewood — was prior. In 
1520, he began to erect a tower at the west end of the church, 
after a florid and ambitious design ; but the days of monachism 
were numbered, and the rude hands of Henry were laid upon 
him, ere the work had proceeded above the roof of the nave. 



SURVEY OF THE PRIORY. 

The first part of the abbey which attracts the notice of a 
stranger is this tower. The west front exhibits great ability of 
design ; but, in the inside the detail of the arch communicating 
with the nave is certainly unsatisfactory, particularly in the 
mouldings, which are of very insufficient projection. The 
arms of Clifford and of the Priory, gules^ a cross patonce^ derived 
from those of the Earls of Albemarle, the ancient lords of 
Skipton, are introduced in the spandrils of the doorway. The 
mouldings of the niches above, after making the heads, expand 
into the resemblance of embattled turrets — thus betraying a ten- 
dency, in the decoration of the work at least, to the cinque-cento 
vitiation. A frieze above contains this inscription : 

%vi if^z ser of oioc lorli mbax ii* ^^ IftejauK tj^cjt fonl^acj^on on 
qtoj^o s^otol goli j^auc macce. amem 

The west front of the great aisle of the nave exhibits a deeply 
recessed doorway, surmounted by three lancet lights with banded 
shafts ; and, as well as that of the north aisle, is enriched with 
a series of arcades, true to the still lingering spirit of old Lom- 
bard works ; but detailed, of course, in the Early-English style. 

The south side of the nave is earlier than the north : the 
latter being Decorated and the former Early-English. At 
its western end, we see indications of the roof and wall of the 
Dormitory ; and of the Store-houses, or whatever might be the 
building below. From the angle of junction of these buildings 
with the nave, its south side is decorated with an arcade of 
pointed arches on cylindrical shafts — exhibiting a good example 
of the transition from the Norman to the Early-English style. 

On viewing the interior, it will be found that the six fine 
lancet lights of this side of the church occupy the spac^ of 



BOLTON PRIORY. I93 

three opposite arches, and are made by two shallow pilasters 
into three corresponding compartments. These coupled lights 
— the first approach to a ramified window^ — are divided in 
height by a plain and original transom. These windows are 
filled with Munich glass, put in under the direction -of Mr. 
Grace at a cost of ;^3000. In a series of 36 groups they depict 
the history of our Lord, beginning with the Annunciation at the 
east and ending with the Ascension at the west. The general 
tone of the glass in each light is purposely varied although the 
design is uniform. Whatever may be the faults and failings or 
English artists in glass, and they are not a few, no benefit will 
certainly be derived by the study of contemporaneous art as here 
exhibited. The triforium, or gallery from the Dormitory of the 
canons to the church, crossed the base of these windows ; the 
passage still remaining by which they entered and left the wall. 
The height of these windows is necessitated by the cloister 
walk which ran along the exterior. 

The opposite side of the Nave is divided from its aisle by 
one cylindrical column placed between two of octagonal form. 
Above these, are four single and plain lancet lights based on a 
semi-cylindrical string course. On the outside, they are not 
divided by buttresses, but connected by a dog-toothed string 
course passing over the heads, with an elegant and characteristic 
foliated boss at the point of springing. 

The Aisle of the Nave has been renewed from the 
ground in the Decorated period, and is economically rather than 
unskilfully plain. It has three windows, with elegant tracery, 
a deeply moulded doorway being introduced towards the west 
end, surmounted by a trefoil-headed arch. 

The western window has had its thre^ main lights filled in 
with modern glass by Clayton and Bell, depicting the Stoning 
of Stephen, the burning of S. Polycarp, and the martyrdom of 
S. Ignatius by lions. The foliation of the old glass has been 
judiciously carried out. 

The space of one intercolumniation, at the east end of this 
aisle, is enclosed by an original Perpendicular wooden lattice, 
except that part which joins the pier of the tower, where there 



194 BOLTON PRIORY. 

is a low wall. This was a Chantry Chapel, founded, no 
doubt, soon after the translation of the house, by one of its 
chief benefactors, the Mauleverers of Beamsley ; and retains its 
character by the piscina-^-a plain semicircular-headed recess, 
of which the basin has been partially destroyed. At the east 
end is the vault of the Claphams of Beamsley, who, accord- 
ing to tradition, were interred there upright. 

** Pass, pass who will, yon chantry door, 
Aiid, through the chink in the fractured floor 
Look down, and see a griesly sight ; 
A Vault where the bodies are buried upright ! 
There face by face, and hand by hand, 
The- Claphams and Mauleverers stand ^ 
And, in his place among son and sire. 
Is John de Clapham, that fierce Esquire, 
A valiant man, and a man of dread 
In the ruthless wars of the White and Red ; 
Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Banbury Church, 
And smote off his head on the stones of the porch.** 

Though some have doubted this statement, and declared that 
no such sight could be seen, I have been assured by a survivor 
of the Clapham family that, on the occasion of some needful 
repairs to " the fractured floor," the *' griesly sight " was fully 
displayed. It was further stated that there were nineteen 
coffins, the wood <^ many being much decayed, but the lead 
remaining sound, and, in one case, measuring 6 feet lo in. long. 

When the nave was retained as a place of worship, a wall 
was raised under the arch by which it communicated with the 
central tower, and two Perpendicular windows were inserted 
in it. The upper part, which was merely of lath and plaster, 
was completed by Mr. Carr, the late amiable and respected 
incumbent of Bolton ; who after a faithful discharge of his 
duty for 54 years, died in 1843, and rests immediately below, 
among scenes and objects he had loved in life, and tended and 
appreciated so well. 

Some years ago the nave was restored by Crace 5 but later 
still, elegant oak stalls, suitable arrangements at the east end, 
encaustic tiles on the floor, a new pulpit and font, and other 
necessaries for public worship, were furnished under the judicious 



BOLTON PRIORY. I95 

direction of Mr. Street. Like Lanercost priory, it is now a 
commodious and well appointed church ; and devout worship- 
pers once more enter, with thanksgiving and prayer, into this 
ancient temple. 

We must now leave the nave, and, in the usual routine, pass 
to the CENTRAL TOWER. This structure may, originally, have 
been raised to the height of one of its squares, above the roofs ; 
but the arches alone now remain. They are of unequal width : 
that of the choir being 28 ft. and very obtuse ; that of the 
transept but 18 ft., and, consequently, elegant and acute. 

It is probable, from the progressive character exhibited in the 
tower, that the South Transept was built before the other. 
It is now totally rased, except the western wall, which retains 
two very beautiful Decorated windows, and a doorway of like 
character leading to the cloister court. When this transept 
was cleared of rubbish, several years ago, the floor of plain 
tiles was found nearly perfect, but partially depressed by the 
lapse of the graves ; and, towards the north-west corner, a 
curious but worn sepulchral memorial of gritstone. It bears a 
rudely incised figure of an Augustinian monk, with his hands 
joined in the attitude of prayer, and this brief record : 

^t {seet Vn*si Xj^oUx Wot> qvioVm Wot. 

By which the tenant of this lonely tomb is identified as Chris- 
topher Wood, the eighteenth prior of the house, who, according 
to Dr. Burton, resigned his office on the loth of July, 1483. 

The North Transept is perfect, except the eastern wall 
of the aisle, which is entirely demolished. It is divided from 
this part by two chamfered arches, resting on an octagonal pillar, 
with a boldly moulded capital. Except this work, and perhaps 
the inner half of the other walls, the whole transept may have 
been rebuilt in the Decorated period. ' At all events, a large 
ramified window was then inserted in the north wall ; two in 
the west 5 and two .with ungraceful triangular heads, but very 
good tracery, over the arches on the east side. 

The side aisle, which was divided from the transept by a 
wooden lattice as high as the capital of the column, communi- 



196 



BOLTON PRIORY. 



cates with the choir by its original, plain, and semicircular arch ; 
and near its side remains an equally uninteresting Piscina — a 
mere round-headed recess, like those in the nave. 

The Choir. — Except a portion of the interior of the lateral 
walls, and fragments attached to the piers of the tower, this 
interesting part of the structure displays that elegant design and 
execution which has vindicated the Decorated style, as the per- 
fection of Gothic architecture. It has neither aisles nor trifo- 
forium, but each side is occupied by five tall lights, all now, 
but one, divested of their exquisite tracery. In the east window 
a few fine flowing fragments still cling to the arch. 

The internal eflFect of the choir is considerably improved, if 
not in classical, certainly in picturesque eflFect, by an arcade of 
semicircular but intersecting arches, which are continued, from 
its junction with the aisles of the transept, to the steps of the 
altar. They are in two tiers — the western series of nine arches, 
on each side, being elevated a little above the other. To amend 
the irregularity, as well as to harmonise this decoration — which 
the rebuilders in the fourteenth century took some pains 
to retain, — with the general eflFect of the choir^ these skil- 
ful and ingenious men inserted a bold and flowing trefoil 
cornice, above the lower range, which brought it level with the 
base mouldings of their windows and the crown of the upper 
arcade. The mouldings of the arch i volt are of good character, 
as well as the capitals of the shafts, which are ingeniously 
diversified. 

Beyond this arcade, in the north wall, is an arched Recess 
not quite 9 inches deep, 9 ft. 6 in. in height and width, and 
flanked by two panelled shafts. It is difl^cult to say whether 
this work, which was respected by the rebuilders of the choir, 
though rude and ungeometrical in the curvature of the arch, 
has been originally intended for a tomb for the Paschal play of 
the Resurrection, or for a real interment. It may, indeed, 
ultimately have served both these purposes ; for the plinth, 
which is continued round the back from the bases of the shafts, 
retains traces of grout-work, which has been superinduced on 
it to the height of 2 ft. 6 in., if not half up the recess. 



I 



BOLTON PRIORY. 1 97 

Whitaker says a skeleton was once found beneath the arch, and 
part of a filleting of brass, with the Lombardic letters nevi ; 
from which he presumed it might belong to Lady Margaret 
Neville, whose funeral is mentioned in the compotus of 131 8. 

Not far from hence is laid the corner of a blue marble Slab, 
which is also said to have been found in the rubbish near the 
arch ; and which, with less risk, may be considered to be a 
fragment of the tomb of John Lord Clifford, K.G., who was 
slain at Meux 10 Henry V., and, according to the Chronicle of 
Kirkstall, was brought home and interred at Bolton. 

In their usual position on the south side, are the remains of 
four Sedilia and a Piscina of Early-English character, much 
mutilated ; though, when Johnston saw them in 1670, they 
remained in tolerable perfection. The number of sedilia rs un- 
usual, being generally either three or five. The brutality of their 
destroyer has left little more than the semi-sexagonal bases of 
the stalls, which are of common grit-stone, enriched with a 
trefoil pan^l, enclosed in a triangle, alternately reversed. A 
small portion of three of the niches alpne is left, though suf- 
ficient to shew that the work has been covered with armorial 
shields, placed in a perpendicular series, double on the back, but 
single on the sides ; the intermediate space being adorned with 
the rose, that was introduced in the stalls of the chapter-house. 
As the relief is very slight, the charges of the few remaining 
shields are totally obliterated. The description of what John- 
ston observed is recorded in the history of Craven ; but it 
seems to aflFord no decisive evidence as to the period of their 
erection, unless the appearance of the shield of Castile and 
Leon is required to carry back the style beyond the close of the 
thirteenth century. 

On the south sjde of the choir were two Chapels, which 
extended half its length, and were coeval with its origin^ con- 
struction. As the roofs rested on corbels placed in the wall 
of the church, the portion of it below was suflFered to remain 
when the choir was rebuilt ; though, from the appearance of 
the angle of the adjoining transept, the outer wall of the chapel 
was then renewed. The^ appropriation of the western chapel, 



198 



BOLTON PRIORY, 



which has been entered from the transept, is forgotten. The 
Other has, unquestionably, been " the resting-place of the Lords 
of Skipton, and patrons of Bolton." It communicates with 
the choir by a doorway, re'built together with it, and a wide con- 
tiguous arch, which, having been left in a rude state at its 
original erection, was then also decorated in the inner surface 
with elegant blank tracery ; and made to harmonize further 
with the character of the choir, by the addition, on that side, of 
a triangular canopy, of which the outline and finial remain. 
Under the arch, I doubt not, was laid the effigy, now entirely 
lost, of "the Lady Romille," which Johnston saw in 1670 ; 
and, in the similar recess in the wall below, I feel equally con- 
fident, were deposited the venerated remains of that great patro- 
ness of the house, when called to her everlasting reward. 

We shall now complete our survey of the ruins most effec- 
tually, by turning to the Quadrangular Court, of which 
the boundary on the north side is marked by the wall of the 
nave. On the west, was a range of lofty buildings, the lower 
apartment being, I presume, the store-house ; the upper, the 
dormitory of the canons, as it is generally found in such a 
situation. Of the refectory, on the south, so much only 
remains as to shew that it has been a spacious apartment, and 
from its shallow buttresses, coeval with the translation of the 
house. At its eastern end, has been a wide passage leading to 
a much larger court behind ; around which, and about the site 
of the present minister's house, were ranged the kitchen, to the 
west ; some unappropriated offices, to the south ; and a long 
chamber, not improbably the guests' hall, to the east. Still 
beyond thjs court, is a small detached building, now used as a 
school-house, and proved, by the flat and shallow buttresses, to 
have been of an age little inferior to the refoundation. 

The east side of the cloister-court is formed by the transept 
of the church, and at its southern extremity is the passage lead- 
ing to the chapter house. The entrance from the cloister was 
rebuilt in the Decorated period, but the arch alone remains — a 
bold and conspicuous object, mantled with ivy,' and emulating 
nature in the foliated capitals of its columns. There is an 



BOLTON PRIORY. I99 

exquisite glimpse, through it, of the waterfall above the river 
in one direction, and of Bolton hall in the other. 

The site of the Chapter House has been discovered only 
within recollection 5 but, having been torn down nearly to the 
foundation, is even yet sought in vain, by many an unpractised 
eye. It was an octagonal building of about 30 ft. in diameter, 
and 12 ft. in each internal face — that on the west being entirely 
voided by the passage. There have been, apparently, five 
stalls on each side, resting on a base of quatrefoils, and orna- 
mented, at each angle, with three roses of exactly similar 
character to those exhibited in the sedilia of the choir. 

On the south side of the chapter house passage, are found- 
ations supposed to have been those of the prior's lodge. 
Another demolished structure at its south-east angle, is con- 
sidered to have been his chapel. Still eastward of the chapter 
house, are swelling mounds, indicative of an enclosure ; and, 
of two buildings, which Whitaker thought might have been 
the priory mill. If the site had been more propitious, I could 
have believed them to have been the lodgings of the prior. 

But we may not linger here ; for the banks and braes of 
Wharfe now begin to develope their attractions, and the sum- 
mer's sun will set ere one half of them can be enjoyed. 

Yet, hard and unenviable is the heart that turns away from 
Bolton Church-yard, without a sigh for Emily Norton — 

« Exalted Emily, 
Maid of the blasted femily "— 

or glances not at the track up the woods and o*er the fell, by 
which the memorable White Doe of Rylstone, after the death 
of her gentle mistress, sought this hallowed sanctuary, each 
sabbath morning, and returned again on the dispersion of the 
congregation. 

After some charming views of the Priory, particularly one 
including the curvature of the Wharf, made familiar by pictorial 
illustration, the path sinks to the bed of the valley and enters 
the woods. 

Although visitors are permitted to ramble at pleasure through 
the woods, except on Sunday, when ingress is strictly prohibited, 



200 BOLTON PRIORY. 

the great diversity of paths renders it advisable that they should 
be accompanied by a guide, without w^hose direction many in- 
teresting points of view must pass unobserved. 

'^ About half a mile above Bolton the valley closes, and on 
either side the Wharfe is overhung by deep and solemn woods, 
from which huge perpendicular masses of gritstone jut but at 
intervals." For awhile, the river sweeps qn in majestic undu- 
lations, exasperated by rocks and swelled by a tributary stream 
bursting from a woody glen. Then for a few moments it reposes 
by a delicious and verdant holm ; lingering noiselessly in the 
shade of luxuriant trees, whose slanting boughs stoop to kiss 
its bosom. ' 

At length, its subdued and solemn roar, '' like the voice of 
the angry spirit of the waters " disturbs the deep solitude of 
the woods, and announces the tremendous Strid, which 
suddenly greets the eye struggling and foaming in the narrow- 
trench of the rock, through which the whole of the impetuous tor- 
rent is poured "with a rapidity proportioned to its confinement." 

Hither, says the shadowy tradition, which for seven centuries 
has invested this awful spot with a mysterious interest, came 
the Boy of Egremond, ranging the woods of Barden with his 
greyhounds and huntsman ; and attempted to cross the gulph — 
then as yet, called the Strid or Stride, 

** He sprang in glee, — for what cared he 
That the river was strong, and the rocks were steep ? — 
But the greyhound in the leash hung back, 
And checked him in his leap. 
The Boy is in the arms of Wharf, 
And strangled by a merciless force ; 
For never more was young Romilly seen • 

Till he rose a lifeless corse.** 

The forester hastened back to Lady Alice, and, with despair 
in his countenance, intimated misfortune by the significant 
enquiry, "What is good for a bootless beane?" by which we 
may understand, What remains when prayer is unavailing? 
Yet it was enough ; for the presentiment of the anxious mother 
instantly rejoined, " Endless sorrow ! " and, on being assured 
that such was her lot, she vowed that many a poor man's 



BOLTON PRIORY. 



201 



son should be her heir, and then, as the tradition runs, became 
the second foundress of Bolton. The language of this question, 
which has now become all but unintelligible, proves the anti- 
quity of the story, which is the next thing to establishing its 
truth ; and alas, on how many a bright and beautiful hope and 
dream of earth have its dark words since intruded ! 

After all, " no one can stand long by it, without feeling a 
sense of its power and savage grandeur grow upon him ; " and 
many, inspirited by its majestic tone, may feel that it is a place 
" how tempting to bestride." But its real contraction, which 
I am told is 4 ft. 5 in., deceives the eye ; and there is the 
greater danger that, in the confusion of insecurity, the attrition 
of the rocks may betray the bounding step, which, like many 
another erring but needless act, can never more be recalled. 

The contraction of the rock extends about sixty yards ; and, 
'' being incapable of receiving the winter floods, has formed on 
either side a broad strand of naked gritstone, full of rock basins 
or pots of the lin, which bear witness to the impetuosity of so 
many northern torrents." 

By. following the main path — sometimes skirting, sometimes 
rising high above the river bank — you wind up the curvature of 
the valley, and at a sheltered bower called Pembroke Seat, 
instinctively halt to contemplate the glorious prospect of the 
torrent sweeping in an "horned flood" far down before you, 
from the old tower of Barden, shrouded in ancient woods and 
backed by the purple distance of Thorpe fell. 

Beyond this point, the excursion of those whose time is 
limited is seldom protracted, but no true lover of nature, or of 
those associations of by-gone days by which it is enhanced, 
should refrain, undismayed by the apparent distance, from pass- 
ing on through the park, to Barden Tower. It is indeed 
but a plain Tudor house, enlarged or rebuilt by Henry Clifford, 
" the Shepherd Lord," from one of the Lodges by which the 
ancient Chace of Barden was protected ; but the scenery around 
is so exquisitely beautiful — the air of primaeval simplicity so 
pure and refreshing — and the profound seclusion and tranquillity 
so congenial to the sympathies of the imagination and of the 
u 



202 BOLTON PRIORY. 

heart, that it needed neither the association of the virtues, or of 
the fame of its founder, nor the lays of him by whom they 
have been sung so worthily and well, to invest its crumbling 
walls with another and an indestructible enchantment. 

The tower was repaired in 1658, by Lady Pembroke, after 
it had been in ruins about seventy years, but it is abandoned 
once more to desolation. The chapel, a small and coeval 
building, attached to the adjoining farm house, is still preserved, 
and served by the minister of Bolton. 

After you have passed the tower and reached the high road, ' 
turn aside down the footpath to Gill-beck fall — a mountain 
stream dashing down a precipice of forty feet to meet the 
Wharfe — but return to the picturesque old bridge, to be greeted 
by the broad sylvan-bounded stream, and Greenhow-hill rising 
in the distance. 

At the foot of the bridge it will be well to pass to the opposite 
side of the river by which you came, and then along the holm ; 
not forgetting often to turn and catch the varying glimpses of 
Barden, nestling in its dense sylvan repose. 

For the gratification which follows, every lover of beauty 
must be grateful to Mr. Carr, who, *' working," as Words- 
worth has said, " with an invisible hand of art in the very spirit 
of nature," guided the path along the hill-side, and '' laid open 
the more interesting points, by judicious thinnings in the woods." 
From one of these stations, there is a lovely view of the river, 
towards Barden, and, a little further on, another in the opposite 
direction, towards the Strid, where the extreme contraction of 
the valley, at that interesting point, may be very definitely 
observed. At length we are brought immediately above the 
raging torrent, and, while the eye rises from the depth and 
luxuriance of the valley, to the green knolls and dreary fells 
swelling beyond, the ear is charmed by that hoarse roar of " the 
angry spirit of the waters," that, for unnumbered ages, has 
never been subdued or stilled. 

Before the Laund House, on the site of one of the lodges 
of Barden, it is worth while to turn aside to an " unwedgable 
and gnarled oak " that may have successively sheltered Romille 






BOLTON PRIORY. 



203 



and Albemarle, ClifFord, and Boyle. It is 25 feet 4 inches in 
girth, at 4 feet 6 inches from the ground, for the tortuosity of 
the trunk prevents its measurement lower. 

It needs no persuasion to allure the most careless step towards 
Posforth-gill — a woody glen that now branches from the vale 
of Wharfe, implying in its antiquated name the character of its 
lively stream. Far down below our path, we are accompanied 
by the rich deep umber-coloured but sparkling and translucent 
beck, sometimes eddying in deep shady pools, then with 
renewed forCe bursting forth and tossing down its rocky bed, 
fringed and canopied by the mountain ashes that sometimes fill 
the bosom of the gill with their elegant and graceful luxuriance. 
After an enchanting prospect down the glen, to which it will 
be hard to say farewell, the path declines towards " the Valley 
of Desolation," and crosses Posforth-beck in front of its finest 
fell, where it is poured in two main streams from the height of 
54 feet, with a force that dashes up the spray more than 15 
yards. It then ascends the upper or high park, and continues 
outside the pale — a judicious arrangement, by which the repi- 
tition of Posforth-gill, however intrinsically interesting, is 
.avoided, and you gain, from the supyior elevation, views of 
the fells on the opposite side of Wharfedale. After crossing 
an angle of the lower park, you regain the woody banks of the 
Wharfe, where you can have the last and not least interesting 
view of Barden ; and, on descending to the holm, pass over 
the wooden bridge to the path by which you set out. 

If you did not approach the priory by the path through the 
fields, you may return by that way, to see the Priory Barn, 
which is still occupied ; and as a singular specimen of ancient 
carpentry, deserves attentive examination. But, if that should 
be no attraction, then, at least, climb the Holm Terrace to 
enjoy the last and most d^icious prospect of the lovely scene 
fi'om which you are now quickly departing ; and to stand — 

not only with the sense 



Of present pleasure, but with pleasing thoughts 
That in that moment there is life and food 
For future years. 



APPENDIX. 



During the time which has elapsed since the printing of the 
sheets relating to the Cathedral, some alterations have occurred 
which may be briefly noticed here. 



THE NAVE. 

The Font, presented by the Honorary Canons, and placed 
under the north-west tower, has been removed. . 

In 1872 a new groined oak. ceiling was bestowed on 
the nave, vaulted from the perpendicular shafts which supported 
the recent flat roof. It is constructed on the model of the 
roofs in the transepts of York Cathedral, and possesses the 
advantage of being, in the opinion of Sir G. G. Scott, on the 
same plan as the builders of the present nave intended to adopt. 
It is to be regretted that, owing to lack of funds, the exterior 
roof could not be raised to its original elevation ; "and this 
rendered the insertion of the vaulted ceiling to its present pitch 
somewhat difficult — there being only five inches space between 
the two roofs. The task has been accomplished by the con- 
struction of the intermediate rib in the form of a scarf folding 
joint. 

The ceiling is ornamented with bosses at the intersection of 
the ribs, finely carved into the semblance of flowers, &c. 
Along the centre beam are bosses bearing sacred emblems and 
armorial bearings ; and viewing them in order from the west they 
thus appear : — foliage ; arms of Dr. McNeile, dean of Ripon ; 
XPC ; three stars of five rays, the arms assigned to St. Wilfrid ; 
angel and scroll — St. Matthew ; the winged lion — St. Mark ; 
Agnus Dei — the device on the ancient Chapter Seal ; Maltese 
cross ; pelican in her piety — emblem of Christ giving his blood 
for his people ; the winged ox — St. Luke ; the eagle — St. John 5 



206 APPENDIX. 

cross keys — arms of the See of York ; IHC ; the arms of 
the See of Ripon impaling Bickersteth ; foliage. 

THE LIBRARY. 

The present library was, in the first instance, the chapel of the 
Blessed Virgin, called, from its situation above the chapter house, 
the Lady-loft. The former collection of books, dating from the 
time of St. Wilfrid himself, was wholly dispersed at the Re- 
formation, shortly before which time Leland saw in the vestry 
a Life of St. Wilfrid by Peter of Blois, now lost. A bequest 
towards the building of a certain library in Ripon minster is 
mentioned in the Chapter Act-book under the year 1466, and 
it seems not unlikely that the western part of the Lady-loft 
was partitioned ofF for the library from the time of its 
erection in the latter part of the fifteenth century. It is reached 
by a flight of stone steps from the south transept, and also by a 
modern winding stair of wood from the chapel to the east of the 
chapter house. The original south wall of the choir, with its 
windows, buttresses, gurgoyles, and cornice, forms its north 
side, and it is well lighted by large square-headed windows of 
simple character. The recesses for the piscina and aumbry 
remain in their usual situation. The monument of Dean 
Higgin, who began the present collection by bequeathing 
his own books, may be seen in a sadly mutilated state, over the 
modern fire-place. The inscription is also gone, but a copy of 
part of it has been preserved. 

ANTONIO HIGGIN, 

DECANO RIPONENSI DIGNISSIMO, 

ICCLESIiC DIGHT0NXNSI8 

PASTORI VIGILANTISSIMO CUSTODI ' 

HOSPITALIS WELLENSIS FIDELISSIMO VIRO 

DOCTRINiE SINGULARIS, VITiB<^UX INTEGERRIMA 

RICHARDUS HUTTON, MILES 

POSUIT — 

All the book-cases are quite new, and those on the north side 
are carried round the projecting buttresses above mentioned. 

Very few books seem to have been added to those bequeathed 
by Dean Higgin until quite recently, though many have totally 






APPENDIX. 207 

perished from damp and neglect, while many which remain 
shew the effects of various destructive agencies. In 1735 the 
chapter exchanged a MS. volume containing seven distinct 
treatises of great interest for some printed books, as appears 
from the following memorandum in Dean Dering's note-book. 

** 1735. — Mem. There are among my books Those ye E. of Oxford gave us for 
a Manuscript, viz., Mabillon de re Diplomadca, Montfaucon Palaeographia Graeca, 
Demosthenis Opera, Usher's Annals, 2 vols., and Wharton*s Anglia Sacra, 2 vol." 

It is now in the Harleian collection, and is described in the 
Catalogue of MSS., No. 2370. 

In a list which remains in Dean Higgin'S own writing, are 
some important entries of books that have now disappeared, 
including Breviarium secundum stilum Anglia in pergameno 
Manuscr, ; Rosarium Afanuscr, per gam, ; Missale Ehoracense 
(twice in catalogue : there is only one left) ; Missale imperfec- 
tum; Portiforium Sarisburiense, 

Considerable interest in the library seems to have been 
revived, for a time, by the visit of Dibdin, so amusingly de- 
scribed in the Decameron^ '817, iii., 419, when he discovered 
the Caxton's Boetius and Book for Travellers. These precious 
volumes were then bound by Lewis, in morocco, in the best 
style of the period, and many more old books were put into 
more or less costly bindings. 

In Dean Goode's time the chapter made considerable additions 
of well -chosen new and old books of permanent value. In 
1 868 the library of the late Rev. Edw. Feilde, of Harro- 
gate, came to the library by bequest, adding a large number of 
books calculated to be useful in the diocese. In 1872 the whole 
collection was arranged by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, F.S.A., 
Librarian to the University of Durham, who wrote an account 
at the time in the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, vol. ii., 
p. 371, to which we refer the reader for further particulars. 

During the present year (1874) a most valuable gift has 
been made by the Marquess of Ripon, of the unique MS, 
volume known as the Ripon Psalter. It contains the psalter 
and hymns, with calendar, etc., according to the Use of York, 



208 APPENDIX. 

but what gives it special interest in connection with Ripon is 
that it has an Appendix containing the lections, responses, 
antiphons, etc., for the services on the three Festivals of St. 
Wilfrid, one of which, that of his Nativity, is shewn by this 
book to have been kept on the first Sunday after Lammas Day, 
in the church and parish of Ripon, thus accounting for " Wilfrid 
Sunday," the origin of which has hitherto been merely guessed 
at. There are only very few of the lections that correspond 
with those in the York Breviary, or with any known life of 
St. Wilfrid, and it is thought that they may possibly be many 
of them from the lost life by Peter of Blois, who was a canon 
of Ripon, sometime about a.d. 1170. The date of the MS. 
is 141 8. The old covers having been lost the volume has been 
newly bound by Andrews and Co., of Durham, who have made 
a handsome case for it, and are most carefully repairing, at the 
expense of the chapter, all the original bindings that require 
attention. Some of these are very beautiful specimens of stamped 
leather, and there is one fine pair of embroidered covers. 

In addition to the Ripon Psalter and the Caxtons above men- 
tioned, there may be selected from Mr. Fowler's list, for special 
mention, a MS. Bible in Latin, with illuminated capitals ; a 
York Calendar from a large MS. Breviary ; York Missal 
(1517) ; Manual (1509) ; Processional (no date) ; Hermann's 
^^ Simple and Religious Consultation " (1548) ; and a Common 
Prayer of June, 1549. 

PLAN OF FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

On examining the plan inserted at p. 1 14, some discrepancy 
will be found to exist between the designation of some of the 
buildings in the table of reference and that given in the text 
for the same parts of the fabric, and it therefore becomes 
necessary to explain, that it is only since the text was printed 
that the plan has received the final corrections of Mr. Edmund 
Sharpe, M.A., F.R.I.B.A., who, at the request of the York- 
shire Archaeological and Topographical Association, has now 
revised the plan prepared by Mr. Walbran, so as to make 



APPENDIX. 



209 



it accord with the views at which he has now, t6 his own satis- 
faction, arrived. Mr. Sharpe, for forty years, has given special 
attention to the whole subject of Cistercian abbeys, and was 
the first to notice the absolute uniformity of plan observable in 
all such abbeys as are of early date, and trace that important 
fact to its source in the regulations of the order. It has therefore 
been felt to be of greater importance to take advantage of his 
large experience, than to avoid the slight confusion which the 
want of correspondence between the plan and the text may 
possibly cause, and these observations are appended in order 
that such confusion may be, as far as possible, dispelled. 

In the text, at page 103, it will be seen that the long apart- 
ment U on the plan is spoken of as the west cloisters, with 
the monks' dormitory over, while in the plan the same two 
apartments are referred to as the Domus Conversorum. It 
is only recently that Mr. Sharpe has finally selected this as the 
proper designation for the building indicated, and he will, no 
doubt, in due course, give good and ample reasons for his hav- 
ing done so. There are, however, certain intrinsic reasons in 
favour of the probability of his theory, which may be very 
shortly stated. The conversi^ though a distinct body from the 
monks, were undoubtedly inmates that must have been pro- 
vided for in the arrangements of the earliest houses, and this 
position in the house accords with the greater freedom which 
their more secular employment rendered necessary, and with 
the observance of a rule which placed them at the west end of 
the church, to which special access, both from dormitory and 
ground story, is there provided. 

The monks being thus displaced, as it were, from their 
position, are, in Mr. Sharpe's arrangement, relegated entirely to 
the greater and more complete seclusion of the cloister court, 
to which alone he considers the term " cloisters " to be applicable. 
This is quite in harmony with the strictly ascetic rules under 
which the monks had to live ; and, in placing their dormitory 
over the fratry, or frater house, and the buildings intervening 
between it and the southern gable of the transept, a provision 
is made for them strictly in accordance with the performance of 



those known duties which night and day might require the 
presence of some of them at the cast end of the church. 

The above remarks are sufficient, it is hoped, to explain to 
the reader the discrepancy above mentioned. It may be 
well to call attention also to a subject not mentioned in the 
text at all, or incidental to the plan, viz., the traces which 
still exist, in the present buildings on the east side of the cloister 
court, of those earlier and simpler buUdings, coeval with the 
church itself, for which the present loftier and more important 
ones have been substituted. These traces can be better detected 
by an observant eye than by any letterpress description ; and 
this reference to them will, it is thought, be found sufficient to 
attract due attention to them. 



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Has a large circulation in Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, 
Harrogate, and the adjoining districts. Every Friday evening. 
Price id. 



Mt ^ '^axt^iidltttan Cimts, 



Circulates largely in Bedale, Northallerton, Thirsk, Leyburn, 
Middleham., Hawes, Richmond, Masham, and throughout the 
towns and dales of the North Riding. Every Saturday. 
Price id. 



Circulating throughout the valley of Nidderdale, Pateley 
Bridge, Harrogate, Ripon, Ripley, &c. Every Saturday. 



Price id. 



Printed and Published by the sole Proprietor, 

ROBERT ACKRILL, HARROGATE, 

To whom all Orders, Communications, and Advertisements, 

should be sent. 




B^Sr J^I^I^OIISTTD^dZEISTT. 



COLLINSON'S 

ifnkffni l0tel mi lasting %mst, 



RIPON. 



FAMILIES VISITING 



RiPON, Studley, Fountains Abbey, 

AND NEIGHBOURHOOD, 

Will find every accommodation at this Old-established and First-dass Hotel, 
which has lately been greatly enlarged and improved. 

PIC-NIC PARTIES, 



PROVIDED WITH 



Li 












C 



ALL ORDERS BY POST PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. 



1 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTON. 



IVedding and Mourning Equipages. 

R. E. COLLINSON, 

WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANT, 

PROPRIETOR. 






/ 



M 



1 



} 



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